“Our previous study indicated that consuming (-)-epigalloc

“Our previous study indicated that consuming (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) before or after traumatic brain injury (TBI) eliminated free radical generation in rats, resulting in inhibition of neuronal degeneration and apoptotic death, and improvement of cognitive impairment. Here we investigated the

effects of administering EGCG at various times pre- and post-TBI on cerebral function and morphology. Wistar rats were divided into five groups and were allowed access to (1) normal drinking water, (2) EGCG pre-TBI, (3) EGCG pre- and post-TBI, (4) EGCG post-TBI, and (5) sham-operated click here group with access to normal drinking water. TBI was induced with a pneumatic controlled injury device at 10 weeks of age. Immunohistochemistry and lipid peroxidation studies revealed that at 1, 3, and 7 days post-TBI, the number of 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine-, 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal- and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-positive cells, and levels of malondialdehyde around the damaged area were significantly decreased in all EGCG treatment groups compared with the water group (P < 0.05). Although there was a significant increase in the number of surviving neurons after TBI in each EGCG treatment group compared with the water group (P < 0.05), significant improvement of cognitive impairment

after TBI was only CX-6258 nmr observed in the groups with continuous and post-TBI access to EGCG (P < 0.05). These results indicate that EGCG inhibits free radical-induced neuronal degeneration and apoptotic death around the area damaged by TBI. Importantly, continuous and post-TBI access to EGCG improved cerebral function following TBI. In summary, consumption of green tea may

be an effective therapy for TBI patients.”
“AIM: To investigate the association between epidermal growth factor (EGF) +61A/G polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer, through a cross-sectional CBL0137 study.\n\nMETHODS: Polymerase chain reaction resctriction fragment lenght polymorphism analyses were used to geno-type EGF +61 in 207 patients with gastric lesions (162 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas, 45 with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia) and 984 controls. All subjects were Caucasian.\n\nRESULTS: Genotype distribution was 23.5% for GG and 76.5% for GA/AA in the control group, 18.4% for GG and 68.6% for GA/AA in the entire group with gastric lesions and 17.9% for GG and 82.1% for GA/AA in the group with gastric adenocarcinoma. No statistically significant associations were found between EGF +61 variants and risk for developing gastric cancer [odds ratios (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.90-2.21, P = 0.116]. However, the stratification of individuals by gender revealed that males carrying A alleles (EGF +61A/G or AA) had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer as compared to GG homozygous males (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05-2.28, P = 0.021).

“The putative platinum(IV) anticancer drugs, [Pt((R)NCH2)(

“The putative platinum(IV) anticancer drugs, [Pt((R)NCH2)(2)(py)(2)XY] (X,Y=Cl, R=p-HC6F4 (1a), C6F5 (1b); X,Y=OH, R=p-HC6F4 (2): X=Cl, Y=OH, R=p-HC6F4 (3), py=pyridine) have been prepared by oxidation of the Pt-II anticancer drugs [Pt((R)NCH2)(2)(py)(2)] (R=p-HC6F4 (4a) or C6F5 (4b)) with PhICl2 (1a,b), H2O2 (2) and PhICl2/Bu4NOH (3). NMR spectroscopy and the X-ray crystal structures of 1b, 2 and

3 show that they have octahedral stereochemistry with the X,Y ligands in the trans-position. The net two electron electrochemical reduction of 1a, 2 and 3 has been studied by voltammetric, spectroelectrochemical and bulk electrolysis techniques in acetonitrile. NMR and other data reveal that reduction selleck chemicals llc of la gives pure 4a via the elimination of both axial chloride ligands. In the case of 2, one end of the diamide ligand is protonated and the resulting-NH(p-HC6F4) group dissociated giving a [PtN(p-HC6F4)CH2CH2NH(p-HC6F4)] arrangement, one pyridine ligand is lost and a hydroxide ion retained in the coordination sphere. Intriguingly, in the case of reduction of 3, a 50% mixture of the reduction products of pure la and 2 is formed. The relative ease of reduction is 1 > 3 > 2. Testing of la, 2 and 3 against L1210 and L1210(DDP) (DDP = cis-diamine-dichloroplatinum(II)) mouse leukaemia cells shows all to be cytotoxic

with IC50 values of 1.0-3.5 mu M. 2 and 3 are active in vivo against AHDJ/PC6 tumor line when delivered in peanut oil despite being hard to reduce electrochemically, and notably are more active than 4a delivered in this medium whilst comparable with 4a delivered in selleck kinase inhibitor saline/Tween. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The complement system and activated neutrophils are thought to play a major role in initiating some of the inflammatory events that occur in spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) on traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat.\n\nMethods: Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were used. Just after SCI by a pneumatic impact device, C1-INH (n=16, C1-INH group) or saline (n=16,

saline group) was Selleckchem Apoptosis Compound Library administered. Sham operated animals (n=6, sham group) received only laminectomy. Eighteen (six from each group) rats were killed and an assessment of leukocyte infiltration by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and immunoreactivity of MPO were performed 24 hours after SCI. Twenty (ten from each of C1-INH and saline groups) rats were examined using behavioral function on post-operative days. They were also examined after 7 days by histologic analysis using Luxol fast blue for axons and myelin. Lesion volume was calculated by considering a lesion as being composed of two cones with juxtaposed bases. During the experiment, sequential changes in regional spinal cord blood flow (rSCBF) were measured using the laser Doppler (LD) scanning technique.

The experiment involved 18 4-month-old Merino

ram lambs w

The experiment involved 18 4-month-old Merino

ram lambs with six lambs per treatment group. The lambs were initially drenched to render them worm free, and then infected with 4000 L(3) H. contortus larvae, 2 weeks later. Four weeks after infection, faecal egg counts were performed and lambs were allocated into treatment groups and fed their respective diets (control, pumpkin kernel or garlic) for 2 weeks. The lambs were combined into a single group grazing pasture for the last week of the experiment. Faecal worm Dinaciclib purchase egg counts (WEC) were carried out weekly for 3 weeks following allocation to treatment diets. Clinical signs of infection observed included liveweight, body condition score and voluntary feed intake.\n\nThe pumpkin kernel treatment resulted in a 65.5% decrease in the initial level of WEC, but this increased back to the initial level as soon as animals came off treatment. The garlic resulted in a 64.4% decrease in WEC from the initial level and this increased slightly (to 25.5% of the initial level and 43.5% lower than the control) when the animals came off treatment,

suggesting that there was a residual effect of the garlic and/or that the garlic had an effect beyond decreasing the fecundity of the parasites. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between treatments in liveweight, body condition score or voluntary feed intake. Throughout the experiment voluntary IPI-145 cell line feed intake and liveweight increased while body condition scores remained stable.\n\nWe concluded that pumpkin kernel and garlic show potential for parasite control by affecting the fecundity of the parasites. Our results also indicate that with good nutrition lambs can cope with high parasite burdens and still be productive during the early stages of infection.”
“Isogeometric analysis has been recently introduced as a viable

alternative to the standard, polynomial-based finite element AG-881 research buy analysis. Initially, the isogeometric approach has been developed using the NURBS and although it has been shown that it can outperform the classical finite element method in many aspects, there are several drawbacks, namely related to the handling trimmed geometries and to the refinement of the adopted discretization. These may be overcome by extending the concept of isogeometric analysis to so-called T-splines which are a generalization of NURBS. This paper presents how the isogeometric analysis based on T-spline can be integrated within an object oriented finite element environment. The class hierarchy and corresponding methods are designed in such a way, that most of the existing functionality of the finite element code is reused. The missing data and algorithms are developed and implemented in such a way that the object oriented features are fully retained. The performance of the implemented T-spline based isogeometric analysis methodology is presented on a simple example. (C) 2012 Civil-Comp Ltd and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Slug immunopositivity in epithelial cells was correlated with cli

Slug immunopositivity in epithelial cells was correlated with clinicopathological parameters and disease prognosis over up to 7.5 years for ESCC patients. Results: Increased expression of Slug was observed in esophageal dysplasia [cytoplasmic, 24/61 (39.3%) cases, p = 0.001, odd's ratio (OR) = 4.7; nuclear, 11/61 (18%) cases, p smaller than 0.001, OR = 1.36] in comparison

with normal esophageal tissues. The Slug expression was further increased in ESCCs [cytoplasmic, 64/91 (70.3%) p smaller than 0.001, OR = 10.0; nuclear, 27/91 (29.7%) p smaller than 0.001, OR = 1.42]. Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed significant association of nuclear Slug accumulation with reduced disease free survival of ESCC patients (median disease selleck compound free survival (DFS) = 6 months, as compared to those that did not show overexpression, DFS = 18 months; p = 0.006). In multivariate Cox regression analysis nuclear Slug expression [p=0.005, Hazard's ratio (HR) = 2.269, 95% CI = 1.289 -3.996] emerged as the most significant independent SYN-117 mouse predictor of poor

prognosis for ESCC patients. Conclusions: Alterations in Slug expression occur in early stages of development of ESCC and are sustained during disease progression. Slug may serve as a diagnostic biomarker and as a predictor of poor disease prognosis to identify ESCC patients that are likely to show recurrence of the disease.”
“Limb ischemia-reperfusion (LI/R) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, critical trauma survivors can present cognitive impairment. GSK2126458 inhibitor Cognitive function, survival rate, oxidative stress and neuronal health were examined to elucidate (1) the magnitude of cognitive effects of prolonged reperfusion, (2) potential players in the mechanistic pathway mediating such effects, and (3) possible benefits of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment at Baihui (GV20), Yanglingquan (GB34), Taichong (LR3), Zusanli (ST36) and Xuehai (SP10) acupoints. LI/R was induced in rats by placing a rubber tourniquet on

each hind limb for 3 h, and the animals were evaluated periodically for 7 d after LI/R. Rats subjected to LI/R had significantly lower survival rates, and displayed evidence of brain injury and cognitive dysfunction (as determined by the Morris water maze test) 1 d and 3 d after reperfusion compared to sham-operated controls. LI/R also resulted in higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), microglial activation, and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity within Comu Ammonis area 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus. Depressed survival rates, microglial activation, oxidative damage, and histological changes, as well as cognitive dysfunction were partially or fully attenuated in rats that received 14 d of EA prior to LI/R.

The primary endpoint was morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) Anal

The primary endpoint was morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00200967.\n\nFindings After 18 weeks of treatment, mean morning PEF in Arg/Arg participants was 21.4 L/min (95% CI 11.8-31.1)

higher when participants were assigned to receive salmeterol than when assigned to receive placebo (p<0.0001). In Gly/Gly participants, morning PEF was 21.5 L/min (11.0-32.1) higher when participants were assigned to receive salmeterol than when assigned to receive placebo (p<0.0001). The improvement in PEF did not differ between genotypes (difference [Arg/Arg-Gly/Gly] -0.1, -14.4 to 14.2; p=0.99). In Gly/Gly participants, methacholine PC20 (20% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s; a prespecified selleck screening library secondary outcome) was 2.4 times higher when participants were assigned to salmeterol YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 mw than when assigned to placebo (p<0.0001). Responsiveness to methacholine did not differ between salmeterol and placebo in Arg/Arg

participants (p=0.87). The 2.5 times higher genotype-specific difference in responsiveness to methacholine was significant (1.32 doubling dose difference between genotypes, 9.43-2.21, p=0.0038). Seven Arg/Arg participants (placebo, n=5; salmeterol, n=2) and six Gly/Gly participants (placebo, n=3; salmeterol, n=3) had an asthma exacerbation. Five serious adverse events were reported, one each during the pre-match and run-in phases on open-label

inhaled corticosteroid, two during double-blind treatment with salmeterol/inhaled corticosteroid, and one during double-blind selleck treatment with placebo/inhaled corticosteroid. None of the serious events was asthma-related or related to study drugs or procedures.\n\nInterpretation In asthma patients with B16 Arg/Arg and B16 Gly/Gly genotypes, combination treatment with salmeterol and inhaled corticosteroid improved airway function when compared with inhaled corticosteroid therapy alone. These findings suggest that patients should continue to be treated with longacting beta(2) agonists plus moderate-dose inhaled corticosteroids irrespective of B16 genotype. Further investigation is needed to establish the importance of the genotype-specific difference in responsiveness to methacholine.”
“The objective of the current study was to characterize calcium handling in developing human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs). To this end, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry, whole-cell voltage-clamp, and simultaneous patch-clamp/laser scanning confocal calcium imaging and surface membrane labeling with di-8-aminonaphthylethenylpridinium were used. Immunostaining studies in the hESC-CMs demonstrated the presence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release channels, ryanodine receptor-2, and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors.

“Cancer cells demonstrate multiple drug resistance phenoty

“Cancer cells demonstrate multiple drug resistance phenotype frequently after chemotherapy. The resistance of cancer cells to various chemotherapeutic agents is defined as multiple drug resistance.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential reversal effects of active agents, that are found high amount in plants, on resistant MCF-7 cell lines. The effects of potential MDR modulators combined with anticancer drugs were also evaluated. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and checkerboard combination assays were performed to study the reversal of drug resistance and for investigation of the antiproliferative find more effects of the combination of anticancer drugs with the modulators. Paclitaxel and potential MDR modulators (verapamil, saikosaponin A, D and isoquercitrin) were applied to the sublines in combination. Fluorescence accumulation levels and fractional inhibitory indices show that saikosaponin A and

D are effective MDR reversal agents that may be used together with paclitaxel in drug resistant mammary carcinoma subline. In conclusion this report represents saikosaponin A and D from natural resources are valuable reagents that may improve the success of chemotherapy.”
“Well-developed, idiomorphic one-dimensional (1D) crystals of fluorapatite (FAp) were successfully grown for the first time oil a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate at 150 degrees C by the cooling of the KNO(3)-LiNO(3) flux. The grown 1D FAp crystals were transparent-colorless, hexagonal prisms bounded by well-developed six-sided 10 (1) over bar0 and flat 0001 end faces and selleckchem elongated in the < 0001 > directions. Their average size was relatively large, reaching about 5.2 x 0.5 mu m. In addtion, the 1D FAp crystal was of very good crystallinity because no defects were observed in its lattice image by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, high-quality, idiomorphic 1D crystals of FAp were tried to be grown directly on a PET substrate by the flux method. The PET surface was completely covered with aggregated FAp crystals,

which were flowerlike in shape (hemisphere) with FAp rods radiating from a central nucleus.”
“CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Taking the outcome of mortality into consideration, there is controversy about the beneficial effects of neuraxial anesthesia for orthopedic surgery. The aim of this BI 6727 research buy study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of neuraxial anesthesia versus general anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.\n\nDESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review at Universidade Federal de Alagoas.\n\nMETHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 10, 2012), PubMed (1966 to November 2012), Lilacs (1982 to November 2012), SciELO, EMBASE (1974 to November 2012) and reference lists of the studies included. Only randomized controlled trials were included.\n\nRESULTS: Out of 5,032 titles and abstracts, 17 studies were included.

It is important to highlight that urinary stones containing trace

It is important to highlight that urinary stones containing trace elements could be considered a marker of environmental pollution.\n\nA large set of urinary stones (48), collected among the AR-13324 solubility dmso Basilicata (southern Italy) inhabitants, was

analysed by AAS and ICP for the content of specific chemical elements that were either involved in the crystallisation process of kidney stones (Ca, Mg, K, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) or which were potentially toxic (Pb, Cr).\n\nThree main findings emerge from the results:\n\n(1) Most urinary stones had high concentrations of elements such as K, Cu and Mg and a low content of Fe when compared to the results of previous studies.\n\n(2) Significant amounts were found in inorganic phases (calcium oxalate and phosphates), whereas only the Zn content was high in organic phases (uric acid and cystine).\n\n(3) Among calcium-based stones, those that were calcium phosphate contained greater amounts of trace elements than those that were calcium-oxalate. Among the calcium oxalate

stones, weddellite retained more trace elements than whewellite.\n\nFurthermore, the results showed that the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb and Cr were greater than that of ingested from a standard diet. Consequently, varying amounts of these elements may have been attributed to their enrichment in the diet of the inhabitants of polluted areas. (C) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Atmospheric air contains various trace impurities which include oxides of nitrogen, carbon, sulphur, and light hydrocarbons. find more Prior to cryogenic distillation of air to produce oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, these trace impurities have to be removed since many of these compounds constitute a safety hazard in the plant. In this LY2090314 mw study, adsorption has

been considered for their removal and adsorption behavior of ethylene, acetylene, nitrous oxide, acetonitrile, methyl tert-butyl ether, methyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol have been studied in the Henry’s Law low concentration region with several different adsorbents. Adsorption equilibrium parameters have been determined with samples of Alcan pure alumina, Alcan alumina/13X composites Actiguard 600/650PC, CABSORB Chabazite, Ceca13X, and Clinoptilolite by using the concentration pulse chromatographic technique. Heat of adsorption values and van’t Hoff plots have been presented.”
“My former research focused on silk fibroin gene transcription. The in vivo transcription initiation site of the fibroin gene, which is similar to the site corresponding to the 5′-terminal of mature fibroin mRNA, was determined. By developing a cell-free transcription system prepared from silk glands, it was found that the upstream region of the fibroin gene is responsible for efficient transcription initiation, which has enhancer-like features.

Subjects/Methods: ICFI was constructed using data from questi

\n\nSubjects/Methods: ICFI was constructed using data from questionnaires on feeding practices and quantitative 24-h recalls (n = 1589). Multivariate analysis was used to control for household wealth and other confounding factors.\n\nResults: ICFI was positively correlated with complementary food energy intake (P < 0.0001) and MMDA (P < 0.0001). ICFI was associated with LAZ among 6-8 months children (P = 0.02). For all ages combined, there was a tendency towards an association that HIF inhibitor did not reach statistical significance (P < 0.08).

Among feeding practices that formed ICFI, breastfeeding was associated with LAZ (P = 0.03) but not in the expected direction with +0.16 z-score difference in favour of non-breast-fed children. When breastfeeding was removed and introduced separately into the multivariate model, the relationship between the modified ICFI and LAZ became significant (P = 0.02).\n\nConclusions: Findings suggest that the ICFI could be a useful analytical tool, which needs however to be constructed according to its final use and which should be adapted to each context. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2009) 63, 718-724; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2008.10; published online 13 February 2008″
“Objective: Studies show that regular consumption of soybeans reduces the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, most of these studies recommend daily intake of 25 g or more of soy protein, an AZD1208 supplier amount considered high and not well tolerated

by patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of low daily intake of soybeans in oxidative stress and in components of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Subjects and methods: Forty individuals with MS were selected and divided into two groups: control group (n = 20) and soybean-treated group (n = 20), which consumed 12.95 g of soy protein for 90 days. Results: After the treatment, the soybean-treated group showed a decrease in fasting glucose and increase in serum HDL and adiponectin. Conclusion: Low intake of soy protein for 90 days, besides being well tolerated by the patients, was able to improve Ispinesib ic50 several parameters related to the pathophysiology

of MS. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2011;55(6):399-405″
“Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational intervention focusing on smoking cessation with final-year undergraduate pharmacy students.\n\nDesign. A smoking-cessation educational workshop entitled Smoking Cessation in Pharmacy (SCIP) was designed on the principles of adult learning and implemented with a full cohort of final-year undergraduate pharmacy students at the University of Sydney. A previously validated questionnaire testing the knowledge and attitudes of respondents was administered both before and after implementation of the designed workshop to evaluate changes resulting from the intervention. Informal feedback was obtained from students.\n\nAssessment. Pre-course mean total knowledge and attitude scores calculated were 65.8+/-9.

We hypothesize that DksA binds to transcription complexes in whic

We hypothesize that DksA binds to transcription complexes in which i6 becomes mobile, for example, as a consequence of weakened RNAP interactions with the downstream duplex DNA. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The present work describes a research approach to the anaerobic bioleaching of Fe(III) ores. Three strains (Serratia fonticola, Aeromonas hydrophila and Clostridium celerecrescens) isolated from an acidic abandoned mine were selected to test their ability to reduce dissimilatory Fe(III). Total iron bio-reduction was achieved after 48 h using either the consortium or the Aeromonas

cultures. In the latter case, there was no evidence of precipitates and Fe(II) remained in solution at neutral pH through complex formation with citrate. None of the other cultures tested (mixed culture Ferroptosis inhibitor review and the two isolates) exhibited this behaviour. Biotechnologically, this is a very promising result since it obviates the problem associated with undesirable precipitation of iron compounds ARN-509 nmr in Fe(III)-reducing bacterial cultures. The performance of the Aeromonas culture was improved progressively by adaptation to moderately acidic pH values (up to 4.5) and to three different Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides as the sole source of iron:

ferrihydrite, hematite and jarosite, commonly found as weathering compounds at mine sites. Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducers for iron extraction from ores is therefore especially attractive in PI3K inhibitor that acidification of the surrounding

area can be minimized. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Patient activation is a term that describes the skills and confidence that equip patients to become actively engaged in their health care. Health care delivery systems are turning to patient activation as yet another tool to help them and their patients improve outcomes and influence costs. In this article we examine the relationship between patient activation levels and billed care costs. In an analysis of 33,163 patients of Fairview Health Services, a large health care delivery system in Minnesota, we found that patients with the lowest activation levels had predicted average costs that were 8 percent higher in the base year and 21 percent higher in the first half of the next year than the costs of patients with the highest activation levels, both significant differences. What’s more, patient activation was a significant predictor of cost even after adjustment for a commonly used “risk score” specifically designed to predict future costs. As health care delivery systems move toward assuming greater accountability for costs and outcomes for defined patient populations, knowing patients’ ability and willingness to manage their health will be a relevant piece of information integral to health care providers’ ability to improve outcomes and lower costs.

Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypurity C18 colu

Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypurity C18 column (50 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 mu m) with an isocratic mobile phase and a total run time of 2.0 min only. The MRM of ENP and Alvocidib supplier ENPT is 377.10 ? 234.20 and 349.20 ? 206.10 respectively. The standard calibration curves showed excellent linearity within the range of 0.064 to 431.806 ng/mL for ENA and 0.064 to 431.720 ng/mL for ENPT (r

= 0.990). This is the only method which can quantitate upto 0.064 ng/mL for both ENP and ENPT in a single run with the shortest analysis time. In matrix effect experiment, this method shows a % CV (% coefficients of variation) of less than 5, which means that the proposed method is free from any kind of irregular ionization process.\n\nThis method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of enalaprilmaleate 20mg tablet in Indian healthy male volunteers. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Objective: The aim of the present study is to identify the facial nerve dissection technique routinely used during parotidectomy for benign parotid tumors

by Nigerian Oral and Maxillofacial (OMF) and Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Surgeons.\n\nMaterials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among Oral and Maxillofacial and Ear, Nose, and Throat Surgeons in Nigeria, on their experience with antegrade and retrograde facial nerve dissection techniques in parotid surgery. The respondents were asked to indicate their choice of dissection techniques in revision parotidectomy, limited superficial parotidectomy, Pevonedistat cost and in obese patients with large PCI-32765 mouse tumors. They were also asked to indicate if they routinely used perioperative facial nerve monitoring devices in parotid surgery for benign tumors.\n\nResult: About half (47.5%) of them routinely

used the antegrade technique, while only a few (12.5%) used the retrograde technique. A large number of them (40%), however, used a combination of antegrade and retrograde routinely. Technical ease was the main reason for the choice of technique. The antegrade technique was the technique of choice by most respondents for revision parotidectomy (60%) and limited superficial parotidectomy (62%). However, the retrograde approach was the technique of choice by most of them (47%) in case of parotidectomy in obese patients with large tumors. The routine use of perioperative facial nerve monitoring devices is an uncommon practice among OMF and ENT surgeons in Nigeria.\n\nConclusions: The antegrade approach for facial nerve dissection is the most common technique used in parotid surgery by Nigerian OMF and ENT surgeons. Nigerian surgeons need to consider the retrograde approach in selected cases of parotid surgery especially for localized tumors that are amenable to limited superficial parotidectomy. Inclusion of perioperative facial nerve monitoring devices is also advocated.