Consequently, the ‘omics’

revolution has been fueled larg

Consequently, the ‘omics’

revolution has been fueled largely by genomics. High-scale proteomics promises to transform medicine with personalized diagnostics, prevention, and treatment. We have now reached into the human proteome to quantify more than 1000 proteins in any human matrix – serum, plasma, CSF, BAL, and also tissue extracts – with our new SOMAmer-based proteomics platform. The surprising and pleasant news is that we have made unbiased protein biomarker discovery a routine and fast exercise. The downstream implications of the platform are substantial.”
“Glutamate spillover in the mossy fiber to granule cell cerebellar glomeruli has been hypothesized to increase neurotransmission reliability. In this study, we evaluate this hypothesis using an experimentally based quantitative model of glutamate

spillover Aurora Kinase inhibitor on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) at the cerebellar glomerulus. The transient and steady-state responses of NMDA-Rs were examined over a physiological range of firing rates. Examined cases included direct glutamate release activation, glutamate spillover activation, and a combination of direct and spillover activation. Our results illustrate that the effects of spillover alone are equivalent to direct release and, notably, combined spillover and direct learn more release effects on NMDA-Rs are not additive. Our results show that spillover does in fact provide a high degree of reliability given that the synaptic vesicle release rate must fall to approximately 15-25% of what is considered the normal baseline level in order to substantially alter neurotransmission across the examined range of frequencies. We suggest that the high reliability provided by activation due to glutamate spillover could be used to conserve energy by reducing the required overall glutamate load at higher frequencies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We constructed the Streptomyces hyperexpression vector pTONA5 based

on pIJ702 vector; it includes a metalloendopeptidase (SSMP) promoter isolated from Streptomyces cinnamoneus TH-2 and Bindarit order a metalloendopeptidase terminator isolated from Streptomyces aureofaciens TH-3. The vector contains recognition sites for restriction enzymes NdeI and EcoRI/XbaI/HindIII between the promoter and terminator to facilitate heterologous gene cloning. The plasmids were transferred from Escherichia coli to streptomycetes via conjugation from oriT; the transformants were able to be selected using kanamycin and/or thiostrepton. The SSMP promoter functions constitutively in the presence of a rich inorganic phosphate source and glucose. We constructed expression plasmids including three Streptomyces aminopeptidases-leucine aminopeptidase, proline aminopeptidase (PAP), and aminopeptidase P (APP)-using the pTONA5 vector and Streptomyces lividans.

(J Vasc Surg 2012; 55: 1196-201.)”
“Discussions of the found

(J Vasc Surg 2012; 55: 1196-201.)”
“Discussions of the foundations of perceptual inference have often centered on 2 governing principles, the likelihood principle and the simplicity principle. Historically, these principles have usually been seen as opposed, but contemporary statistical (e.g., Bayesian) theory tends to see them as consistent, because for a variety of reasons simpler models (i.e., those with fewer dimensions or free parameters) make better predictors than more complex ones. In perception, many interpretation spaces are naturally hierarchical, meaning that they consist of a set of mutually embedded model classes of various levels of complexity, including simpler (lower

dimensional) classes that are special cases of more complex ones. This article Nutlin-3 ic50 shows how such spaces can be regarded as algebraic structures, for example, as partial orders or lattices, with interpretations ordered in terms of dimensionality. The natural inference rule in such a space is a kind of simplicity rule: Among all interpretations qualitatively consistent with the image, draw the one that is lowest in the partial order, called the maximum-depth interpretation. This interpretation also maximizes the Bayesian posterior under certain simplifying assumptions,

consistent with a unification of simplicity and likelihood principles. Moreover, the algebraic approach brings out the compositional structure buy GDC-0973 inherent in such spaces, showing how perceptual interpretations

are composed from a lexicon of primitive perceptual descriptors.”
“Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) is a catastrophic complication of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair. This article describes our early experience with a technique for maintaining perfusion of segmental vessels (intercostals and lumbars) in the early postoperative period after endovascular repair of a TAAA, with “”sac perfusion branches”" added to custom-made stent grafts. These are closed 7 to 10 days after the first procedure to complete exclusion of the aneurysm. We have used check details this technique in 10 patients with type II TAAAs. One developed monoparesis of the right leg during a period of hypotension secondary to a cardiac event and died within 30 days. Two patients developed lower limb weakness after closure of the perfusion branches, both with full recovery. Controlled perfusion of segmental vessels with perfusion branches is feasible and may be a useful adjunct to prevent SCI, providing protection to spinal cord perfusion during the immediate postoperative period when risk of SCI is greatest. (J Vasc Surg 2012; 55: 1202-5.)”
“Many “”if p, then q”" conditionals have ‘decision-theoretic features, such as antecedents or consequents that relate to the utility functions of various agents. These decision-theoretic features leak into reasoning processes, resulting in various paralogical conclusions.

We identified two compounds, ellagic acid and spiperone, that sup

We identified two compounds, ellagic acid and spiperone, that suppressed the ability of the SV40 recombinant virus to inhibit cellular DNA synthesis. These compounds caused a marked reduction of the ability of wild-type SV40 to productively infect permissive monkey cells, even when the compounds were added several hours after infection. The fraction of cells expressing SV40 large T antigen and the levels of T antigen mRNA were reduced in infected human and monkey cells treated with ellagic acid and spiperone, suggesting that these compounds block a step in the virus life cycle prior to SV40 early Dorsomorphin datasheet gene expression. Ellagic

acid and spiperone also inhibited large T antigen expression by BK virus and JC virus, two important,

pathogenic human polyomaviruses.”
“Each Sindbis virus (SINV) surface glycoprotein has two sites for N-linked glycosylation (E1 positions 139 and 245 [E1-139 and E1-245] and E2 positions 196 and 318 [E2-196 and E2-318]). Studies of SINV strain TE12 mutants with each site eliminated identified the locations of carbohydrates by cryo-electron microscopy (S. V. Pletnev et al., Cell 105: 127-136, 2001). In the current study, the effects of altered glycosylation on virion infectivity, growth in cells of vertebrates and invertebrates, heparin binding, virulence in mice, and replication in mosquitoes were assessed. Particle-to-PFU ratios for E1-139 and E2-196 mutant strains were similar to that for TE12, but this Selleckchem PD0325901 ratio for the E1-245 mutant was 100-fold lower than that for TE12. Elimination of either E2 glycosylation site increased virus binding to heparin and increased replication in BHK cells. Elimination of either E1 glycosylation site had no effect on heparin binding but resulted in an approximately 10-fold decrease in virus yield from BHK cells compared to the TE12 amount. No differences in pE2 processing were detected. E2-196 and E2-318 mutants were more virulent in mice after intracerebral inoculation, while E1-139 and E1-245 mutants were less virulent. The E1-245 mutant PD173074 order showed impaired replication in C7/10 mosquito cells

and in Culex quinquefasciatus after intrathoracic inoculation. We conclude that the increased replication and virulence of E2-196 and E2-318 mutants are primarily due to increased efficiency of binding to heparan sulfate on mammalian cells. Lack of glycosylation at E1-139 or E1-245 impairs replication in vertebrate cells, while E1-245 also severely affects replication in invertebrate cells.”
“Understanding innate immunity is key to improving the safety of adenovirus (Ad) vectors for systemic gene therapy. Ad has been shown to activate complement in vitro, but activation of complement after Ad injection in vivo has not been directly measured. Using complement protein C3a as a marker of complement activation, we show that types 2 and 5 human Ads cause rapid complement activation after intravenous injection in mice.

The tests used were the forced swim test (FST) for antidepressant

The tests used were the forced swim test (FST) for antidepressants, the amphetamine-locomotor

activity test for antipsychotics, the elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiolytics, as well as tests of general locomotor activity using home cage monitoring (HCM) and the open field test. Continuous HCM revealed a significantly higher daily activity and lower nocturnal activity for LH compared to the other strains; there were no strain-related differences in the open field check details test. In the FST there were no strain differences in immobility time and a similar magnitude of desipramine-induced reduction in immobility across strains. In the locomotor activity test, control LH rats showed significantly higher activity whilst significant amphetamine-induced hyperactivity was seen only with the LH and W strains.

In the EPM, control LH rats had a significantly larger percentage of open arm entries, whilst only the SD strain displayed a significant diazepam-induced increase in this parameter. These findings suggest that find more strain variation can cause markedly different results in behavioural pharmacological tests where locomotor activity plays a significant role, and should be taken into account when selecting a strain for evaluating the behavioural effects of psychotropic drugs. Such differences in locomotor activity in the LH strain could be accounted for by an altered diurnal pattern in this strain. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The myxoma virus (MYXV)-encoded pyrin domain-containing protein M013 coregulates inflammatory responses mediated

by both the inflammasome and the NF-kappa B pathways. Infection of human THP-1 monocytic cells with a MYXV construct deleted for the M013 gene (vMyxM013-KO), but not the parental MYXV, activates both the inflammasome and NF-kappa B pathways and click here induces a spectrum of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. Here, we report that vMyxM013-KO virus-mediated activation of inflammasomes and secretion of IL-1 beta are dependent on the adaptor protein ASC, caspase-1, and NLRP3 receptor. However, vMyxM013-KO virus-mediated activation of NF-kappa B signaling, which induces TNF secretion, was independent of ASC, caspase-1, and either the NLRP3 or AIM2 inflammasome receptors. We also report that early synthesis of pro-IL-1 beta in response to vMyxM013-KO infection is dependent upon the components of the inflammasome complex. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1 beta was also dependent on the release of cathepsin B and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Hence, the polyuria/polydipsia effect produced by ME lesions appe

Hence, the polyuria/polydipsia effect produced by ME lesions appears to be consistent during the first 24 h but might later be related to the availability of standard food and is completely abolished under EPZ5676 food deprivation conditions. Preference for the hypertonic solution supports the volemic component of this syndrome and demonstrates the need for appropriate amounts of hypertonic nutrients to be consumed during the first 24 h. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Oral fumarate (BG00012) might have dual anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of BG00012 in patients with

relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Methods 257 patients, aged 18-55 years, with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were randomly JSH-23 in vitro assigned to receive 120 mg once daily (n=64), 120 mg three times daily (n=64), or 240 mg three times daily (n=64) BG00012, or placebo (n=65) for 24

weeks. During an extension period of 24 weeks for safety assessment, patients treated with placebo received BG00012 240 mg three times daily. The primary endpoint was total number of new gadolinium enhancing (GdE) lesions on brain MRI scans at weeks 12, 16, 20, and 24. Additional endpoints included cumulative number of new GAE lesions (weeks 4-24), new or enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions, new T1-hypointense lesions at week 24, and annualised relapse rate. Analysis was done on the efficacy-evaluable population. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. This study is registered with, number NCT00168701.

Findings Treatment with BG00012 240 mg three times daily reduced by 69% the mean total number of new GdE lesions from week 12 to 24 compared

with placebo (1 . 4 vs 4.5, p<0 . 0001). It also reduced number of new or enlarging T2-hyperintense (p=0 . 0006) and new T1-hypointense why (p=0.014) lesions compared with placebo. BG00012 reduced annualised relapse rate by 32% (0.44 vs 0 . 65 for placebo; p=0 . 272). Adverse events more common in patients given BG00012 than in those given placebo included abdominal pain, flushing, and hot flush. Dose-related adverse events in patients on BG00012 were headache, fatigue, and feeling hot.

Interpretation The anti-inflammatory effects and favourable safety profile of BG00012 warrant further long-term phase III studies in large patient groups.

Funding Biogen Idec, Inc.”
“Olfactory dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and has been attributed to early pathological deposition of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in primary olfactory centers. However, olfactory deficits do not always worsen over time despite progression of disease raising the possibility of additional pathobiological mechanisms contributing to olfactory functions in PD, such as changes in olfactory neurotransmitter functions.

63, 95% confidence interval=0.03-1.24) for active treatment was o

63, 95% confidence interval=0.03-1.24) for active treatment was observed.


The findings suggest that slow-frequency rTMS to the frontal cortex is more effective than sham treatment and may be equally effective as fast-frequency rTMS in the treatment of MDD.”
“In humans and experimental animals, protein-enriched diets are beneficial for weight management, muscle development, managing early stage insulin resistance and overall health. Previous studies have shown that in mice consuming a high fat diet, whey protein isolate (WPI) reduced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance due in part to an increase in basal metabolic rate. In the current study, we examined the ability of WPI to increase energy metabolism in mouse brain. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal AIN-93M diet for 12 weeks, with (WPI group) or without (Control group) 100 g WPI/L drinking water. In WPI mice compared to controls, the oxidative stress Selleck Captisol biomarkers malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were

40% lower in brain homogenates, and the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were 25-35% less in brain mitochondria. Brain mitochondria from WPI mice remained coupled, and exhibited higher rates of respiration with proportionately greater levels of cytochromes a + a(3) and c + c(1). These results suggested that WPI treatment increased the number or improved the function of brain mitochondria. qRT-PCR revealed that the gene Citarinostat purchase encoding a master regulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha) was elevated 2.2-fold, as were the PGC-lalpha downstream genes, Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A), Gabpa/Nrf-2a (GA-binding selleckchem protein alpha/nuclear respiratory factor-2a), and Cox-6a1 (cytochrome oxidase-6a1). Each of these genes had twice the levels of transcript in brain tissue from WPI mice, relative to controls. There was no change in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2mg (beta-2 microglobulin). We conclude that dietary whey protein decreases oxidative stress and increases mitochondrial activity

in mouse brain. Dietary supplementation with WPI may be a useful clinical intervention to treat conditions associated with oxidative stress or diminished mitochondrial activity in the brain. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Urinary exosomes are 40-100nm vesicles containing protein, mRNA, and microRNA that may serve as biomarkers of renal dysfunction and structural injury. Currently, there is a need for more sensitive and specific biomarkers of renal injury and disease progression. Here we sought to identify the best exosome isolation methods for both proteomic analysis and RNA profiling as a first step for biomarker discovery. We used six different protocols; three were based on ultracentrifugation, one used a nanomembrane concentrator-based approach, and two utilized a commercial exosome precipitation reagent.

Understanding these relationships may inform the optimization of

Understanding these relationships may inform the optimization of therapeutic interventions to improve their risk/benefit ratio. To elucidate these relationships, we evaluated a novel form of ECT (focal electrically administered seizure therapy, FEAST) that combines unidirectional Tozasertib mw stimulation, control of polarity, and an asymmetrical electrode configuration, and contrasted it with conventional ECT in a nonhuman primate model. Rhesus monkeys had their seizure thresholds determined on separate days with ECT conditions that crossed the factors of current directionality (unidirectional

or bidirectional), electrode configuration (standard bilateral or FEAST (small anterior and large posterior electrode)), and polarity (assignment of anode and cathode in unidirectional stimulation). Ictal expression and post-ictal suppression were quantified through scalp EEG. Findings were replicated and extended in a second experiment with the same subjects. Seizures were induced in each of the 75 trials, including 42 FEAST procedures. Seizure thresholds were lower with unidirectional than with bidirectional stimulation (p<0.0001), and Veliparib ic50 lower in FEAST

than in bilateral ECS (p = 0.0294). Ictal power was greatest in posterior-anode unidirectional FEAST, and post-ictal suppression was strongest in anterior-anode FEAST (p = 0.0008 and p = 0.0024, respectively). EEG power was higher in the stimulated hemisphere in posterior-anode FEAST (p = 0.0246), consistent with the

anode being the site of strongest activation. These findings suggest that current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration influence the efficiency of seizure induction with ECT. Unidirectional stimulation and novel electrode configurations such as FEAST are two approaches to lowering seizure threshold. Furthermore, the impact of FEAST on ictal and post-ictal expression appeared to be polarity dependent. Future studies may examine whether these differences in seizure threshold and expression have clinical significance for patients receiving ECT. Neuropsychopharmacology (2009) 34, 2002-2010; doi: 10.1038/npp.2009.12; published online 18 February 2009″
“Lentiviral vectors (lentivectors) are effective for stimulation of cell-mediated and Bafilomycin A1 research buy humoral immunity following subcutaneous and intramuscular immunization. However, lentivector genome integration carries a risk of perturbation of host gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that lentivectors with multiple mutations that prevent integration are also effective immunogens. First, systemic CD8(+) T-cell responses to the model antigen ovalbumin were detected following subcutaneous injection of nonintegrating lentivectors. Transfer of transgenic OT1 T cells demonstrated that antigen presentation persisted for at least 30 days.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Neonatal ketam

(C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Neonatal ketamine (KET) or phencyclidine (PCP) treatment can trigger apoptotic neurodegeneration in rodents. Previously, we described KET- and PCP-induced altered body weight and home cage, slant board and forelimb hang behaviors in preweaning rats (Boctor et al., 2008). In that study, L-carnitine (LC) attenuated the KET-induced behavioral alterations and body weight decrements. The four subcutaneous (sc) treatment groups this website were: (1) saline; (2) 10 mg/kg PCP on PNDs 7, 9 and 11; (3) 20 mg/kg KET (6 injections;

one every 2 h on PND 7); or (4) a regimen of KET and 250 mg/kg LC (KLC) both administered on PND 7, with additional 250 mg/kg doses of LC on PNDs 8-11. A portion of each treatment group was evaluated for postweaning behaviors which included grip strength and motor coordination (postnatal days (PNDs) 22 or 71), locomotor sensitization (PND 42), spatial alternation (PNDs 22-70) and residential running wheel activity (PNDs 72-77). On PND 42 or 78, whole and regional brain weights were measured. Grip strength and motor coordination were unaffected at either age by neonatal treatment. On PND 42, neonatally treated KET- or KLC-treated

rats responded to a challenge of 5 mg/kg KET with activity similar to controls that received the same challenge. Neonatal PCP treatment, however, induced significant sensitization buy Flavopiridol to a challenge of 3 mg/kg PCP on PND 42 relative to controls that received the same challenge, causing increased activity which was especially profound in females. Performance on a continuous spatial alternation task requiring a “”win-shift, lose-stay”" strategy appeared unaffected by neonatal KET or KLC treatment. PCP treatment, however, caused significantly increased random responding and shorter choice latencies. In addition, neonatal PCP treatment elevated light and dark period running wheel activity and reduced PND PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 mw 42 and 78 body and whole

brain weights. These findings provide further evidence that PCP treatment on PNDs 7,9, and 11 causes subtle cognitive deficits and long-term alterations in activity that are unrelated to deficits in grip strength OF motor coordination. Further, repeated KET treatment on PND 7 does not appear to result in severe behavioral modifications. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are zoonotic paramyxoviruses capable of causing severe disease in humans and animals. These viruses require biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment. Like other paramyxoviruses, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) can be used to detect antibodies to the surface glycoproteins, fusion (F) and attachment (G), and PRNT titers give an indication of protective immunity. Unfortunately, for NiV and HeV, the PRNT must be performed in BSL-4 containment and takes several days to complete.

(C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

(C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The role of voltage-gated sodium channels in the transmission of neuropathic pain is well recognized. For instance, genetic evidence recently indicate that the human Nav1.7 sodium channel subtype plays a crucial role in the ability to perceive pain sensation

and may represent an important target for analgesic/anti-hyperalgesic drugs. In this study a newly synthesized tocainide congener, named NeP1, was tested in vitro on recombinant hNav.1.4 and hNav1.7 channels using patch-clamp technique and, in vivo, in two rat models of persistent AG-120 neuropathic pain obtained either by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve or by oxaliplatin treatment. NeP1 efficiently blocked hNav1.4 and hNav1.7 channels in a dose- and use-dependent manner, being by far more potent than tocainide. Importantly, the new compound displayed a remarkable use-dependent effect, which

likely resulted from a very high affinity for inactivated compared to closed channels. In both models of neuropathic pain, NeP1 was greatly more potent than tocainide in reverting the reduction of pain threshold in vivo. In oxaliplatin-treated rats, NeP1 even produced greater and more durable anti-hyperalgesia than the reference drug tramadol. In addition, in vivo and in vitro studies suggest a better SC75741 solubility dmso toxicological and pharmacokinetic profile for NeP1 compared to tocainide. Overall, these results indicate NeP1 as a new promising lead compound for further development in the treatment of chronic pain of neuropathic origin. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The surround suppression of the receptive field is important

for basic visual information processing, such as orientation specificity. To date, the effects of aging on the strength of surround suppression are not clear. To address this issue, we carried out extracellular single-unit studies of the receptive field properties of cells in the primary visual cortex (area V1) in young and old rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. When presented click here with the oriented central stimulus, we found that cells in old animals showed reduced orientation and direction selectivity compared with those in young animals. When presented with the oriented central stimulus together with the optimal surround stimulus, more selective cells orientation bias (OB) >= 0.1; a bias of 0.1 is significant at the P<0.005 level in animals of both ages showed reduced orientation selectivity compared with the experiment that presented only the oriented central stimulus. When presented with the optimal central stimulus together with the oriented surround stimulus, cells in old animals showed reduced orientation and direction selectivity compared with young animals. Moreover, broadly tuned cells (OB<0.

This implies the consideration of possible functional differences

This implies the consideration of possible functional differences in different species. Here, we compare single unit recordings from MNTB principal cells in vivo in three different

SNS-032 solubility dmso rodent species: gerbil, mouse and rat. Because of their good low-frequency hearing gerbils are often used in in vivo preparations, while mice and rats are predominantly used in slice preparations. We show that MNTB units in all three species exhibit high firing rates and precise onset-timing. Still there are species-specific specializations that might suggest the preferential use of one species over the others, depending on the scope of the respective investigation. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The calyx of Held is a morphologically complex nerve terminal containing hundreds to thousands of active zones. The calyx must support high rates of transient, sound-evoked vesicular release superimposed on a background of sustained release, due to the high spontaneous rates of some afferent fibers. One means of distributing

vesicle release in space and time is to have heterogeneous release probabilities (P-r) at distinct active zones, which has been observed at several CNS synapses including the calyx of Held. P-r may be modulated by vesicle proximity to Ca2+ channels, by Ca2+ buffers, by changes in phosphorylation state of proteins involved in the release process, or by local variations in Ca2+ influx. In this study, we explore the idea that the complex geometry of the calyx also contributes to heterogeneous P-r by impeding equal propagation 5-Fluoracil price of action potentials through all calyx compartments.

Given the difficulty of probing ion channel distribution and recording from adult calyces, we undertook a structural and modeling approach based on computerized reconstructions of calyces labeled in adult cats. We were thus able to manipulate placement of conductances and test their effects on Ca2+ concentration in all regions of the calyx following an evoked action potential in the calyceal axon. selleck compound Our results indicate that with a non-uniform distribution of Na+ and K+ channels, action potentials do not propagate uniformly into the calyx, Ca2+ influx varies across different release sites, and latency for these events varies among calyx compartments. We suggest that the electrotonic structure of the calyx of Held, which our modeling efforts indicate is very sensitive to the axial resistivity of cytoplasm, may contribute to variations in release probability within the calyx. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Intake of endophyte-infected tall fescue by cattle results in fescue toxicosis, which is characterized by increased hyperthermia during heat stress and concomitant reductions in feed intake and growth.