We find that in order to achieve detectable spin injection a smal

We find that in order to achieve detectable spin injection a small contact

area or thick SC samples are essential for direct contact spin injection devices. We investigate the use of thin metal films (Cu) proposed by Kumar et al. BVD-523 datasheet [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142110 (2007)] and show that they are an excellent substitute for tunneling barriers (TB) in the regime of small contact area. Since most tunneling barriers are prone to pinhole defects, we study the effect of pinholes in AlO tunneling barriers and show that the reduction in the spin-injection ratio (gamma) is solely due to the effective area of the pinholes and there is no correlation between the number of pinholes and the spin-injection ratio. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3594712]“
“Efficient mixing in bioreactors is essential in order to avoid concentration gradients which can be harmful for mammalian cells To study mixing and its scalability in orbitally shaken cylindrical bioreactors we measured mixing times in containers with nominal volumes from 2 to 1500 L with a colorimetric method using two pH indicators Four operating parameters

were tested the liquid height the shaking diameter the agitation rate and the inner diameter of the container The mixing time decreased as the agitation rate AZD6738 price increased until a minimal value was reached As the shaking diameter was reduced a higher agitation rate was needed to reach the minimal mixing time The liquid height did not have a significant effect on the mixing time BLZ945 but for a constant volume an increase of the inner diameter slightly reduced the mixing time The fastest mixed zones were close to the wall of the container while the zone in the center of the bulk liquid was the last to achieve homogeneity Our study showed that the free-surface shape correlated with the mixing regime and that by keeping the inner-to-shaking

diameter ratio as well as the Froude number (Fr) constant the free-surface shapes and the mixing regimes of a 1500-L bioreactor could be mimicked in a 30-L bioreactor We concluded that the mixing in orbitally shaken cylindrical bioreactors ensures homogeneity for mammalian cell cultures at scales up to 1500 L and that the inner-to-shaking diameter is a suitable scale-up factor for mixing (C) 2010 Elsevier B V All rights reserved”
“Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810.

Results: Forty patients (14 received open surgery and 26 received

Results: Forty patients (14 received open surgery and 26 received laparoscopic surgery) were enrolled in our study. Both procedures were successful and no patient in the retroperitoneal laparoscopic group required conversion to open

surgery. The mean age of the patients was 52.7 years. The median size of the tumor was 5.0cm. Forty-three percent of patients suffered from lumbago. There was no statistical difference in perioperative complications between the two groups (p>0.05). Retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy patients had a shorter operation time (90.6637.97min vs 141.82 +/- 62.78min, p=0.017), less blood loss (150, 100-200mL selleck chemicals vs 450, 300-525mL, p=0.000), earlier time of returning to diets (2, 2-3 days vs 3, 2-4.5 days, p=0.036), and a shorter hospital stay (6, 5-7 days vs 10, 8-11.25 days, p=0.000) when compared with open surgery patients. Conclusion: Both open and laparoscopic surgeries are efficient and safe treatments

for large or symptomatic adrenal myelolipoma, and retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery has the advantages of minimal invasion and rapid postoperative recovery.”
“Cardiac involvement, such as pericarditis, myocarditis, and endocarditis, is seen in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Although there have been some reports about right-ventricular systolic and diastolic functions of adults with rheumatoid arthritis and left-ventricular systolic and diastolic functions of children with JIA, there have been no studies about RV functions of children with JIA. Sapanisertib supplier The aim of this study was to determine RV functions in children with JIA. We performed conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging measurements of the right ventricle of patients with JIA. All patients were in sinus rhythm at the time of examination without overt LV heart failure and with normal LV ejection fraction. Fifty-five children with the diagnosis of JIA and 33 healthy

control subjects were included in the study. Peak systolic, early, and late diastolic tricuspid annular velocities were significantly decreased in JIA patients Napabucasin in vitro compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05). Isovolumic accelaration (IVA), as a measure of myocardial acceleration during isovolumic contraction of the right ventricle, was also significantly lower in JIA patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.05). RV systolic and diastolic functions, in addition to the previously shown LV functions, are affected in JIA patients. IVA decreases in JIA patients and may be used as an alternative, noninvasive parameter for the assessment of RV systolic function in children with JIA.”
“Cerebellar deficits and subsequent impairment in procedural learning may contribute to both motor difficulties and reading impairment in dyslexia.

CONCLUSION: Our results confirm recent criticisms that the profes

CONCLUSION: Our results confirm recent criticisms that the professional quality of expertises does not suffice. This is hardly acceptable in face of the financial and personal consequences. There is an obvious need for further research using larger samples and for educational programmes on all levels.”
“Subcritical water extraction (SWE) is a very promising technique for obtaining bioactives (mainly antioxidants) from natural sources even if sometimes the high operation temperatures have been suggested as responsible for thermal degradation of bioactives the fact is that this type of extraction processes

may generate new bioactive (antioxidant) compounds The present study involved the analysis of antioxidants either naturally found in raw samples and/or those formed during extraction via Maillard LY2835219 purchase reaction and other chemical events Samples of different nature like microalgae (Chlorella vulgar’s) algae (Sargassum vulgare Porphyra spp Cystoseira aims marina Sargassum muticum Undaria pinnatifida and Halopits incurvus) and plants (rosemary thyme and verbena) were studied Amino acid availability sugar content fluorescence and absorbance at different wavelengths were determined to follow chemical changes due to

reactions such as Maillard caramelization and thermoxidation Folin reaction also provided information related to total phenol content of the samples ABTS(+) peroxyl as well as superoxide radical scavenging assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the extracts Results

click here obtained from this study suggest that neoformed compounds derived from Maillard caramelization and thermoxidation reactions affect the overall antioxidant capacity of water subcritical extracts depending on the nature of the sample The brown algae U pinnatifida was the sample in which these chemical events contributed to a higher extent to improve the antioxidant capacity (from 0 047 to 1 512 mmol/g and from 45 356 to 1522 692 mu mol/g for the TEAC and ORAC(FL) methods respectively) when the extraction temperature was raised from 100 to 200 C To the best of our knowledge this is the first work supporting the formation of neoantioxidants in natural SB203580 complex matrices during subcritical water extraction (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) represent the predominant cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A key UPEC molecular virulence mechanism is type 1 fimbriae, whose expression is controlled by the orientation of an invertible chromosomal DNA element-the fim switch. Temperature has been shown to act as a major regulator of fim switching behavior and is overall an important indicator as well as functional feature of many urologic diseases, including UPEC host-pathogen interaction dynamics.

The results indicate that CoQ(10) liposomes with particle sizes a

The results indicate that CoQ(10) liposomes with particle sizes about 50nm can be easily obtained from hydrating CoQ(10) proliposomes prepared by SAS technique.”
“OBJECTIVE: To describe six cases of unknown

primary carcinoma of the retroperitoneum that find more were positive for human papillomavirus (HPV), a surrogate molecular marker for high-risk HPV (p16), or both.

METHODS: Using the MD Anderson pathology database, females with confirmed HPV or p16 expression within retroperitoneal carcinomas of unknown primary were identified. Clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review. One pathologist reviewed all histology. Individuals with known primary were excluded. Data regarding individual demographics, presentation, Pap test history, pathology, HPV and p16 positivity, and outcome were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

RESULTS: Six individuals were identified. The median age of the individuals was 43.5 years (range 27-54). Three malignancies (50%) were squamous and three (50%) were undifferentiated.

Median follow-up was 12 months (range 6-48 months). Two of the six (33%) individuals had remote histories (more than 10 years) of abnormal Pap test results. All had normal gynecologic examination and Pap test results at diagnosis. Four tumors were HPV-positive (66%) and six were p16-positive (100%). P005091 molecular weight All samples that were HPV-positive were also p16-positive. All individuals underwent treatment with chemotherapy, radiation, or both. One individual underwent initial attempt at resection that was unsuccessful. Two individuals

are without evidence of disease, two have had progression of disease, and two have died of their disease.

CONCLUSION: Pelvic masses of unknown primary may be HPV-related despite normal cervical examinations. (Obstet beta-catenin inhibitor Gynecol 2010;116:1042-6)”
“Introduction: The metopic suture is the only calvarial suture which normally closes during infancy. Upon closure, a palpable and visible ridge often forms which can be confused with metopic craniosynostosis. Metopic ridging (MR) is treated nonsurgically while metopic craniosynostosis (MCS) is treated surgically. Differentiating between the two is paramount; however, consensus is lacking about where a clear diagnostic threshold lies. The goal of this study is to describe the physical examination and CT scan characteristics which may help to differentiate between physiological closure of the metopic suture with ridging (MR) and MCS.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients seen at Seattle Children’s Hospital between 2004 and 2009 with the diagnosis of either MCS or MR (n = 282) was performed. Physical examination characteristics described by diagnosing practitioners were analyzed. Clinical photos were assessed by 3 expert raters to determine the importance of these characteristics. CT scan findings were abstracted and compared between the two diagnoses.

Monensin enhances the cytotoxicity of ricin entrapped in various

Monensin enhances the cytotoxicity of ricin entrapped in various charged

liposomes depending on the surface charge. Maximum potentiation of cytotoxicity of ricin was observed when it was delivered through negatively charged liposomes having 5 mol% PEG-2000 on the surface. Studies on the kinetics learn more of inhibition of protein synthesis by ricin revealed that the lag period of inhibition of protein synthesis is significantly lengthened following its delivery through various charged liposomes. Monensin significantly reduced the lag period of action of ricin. It was also observed that the efficacies of monensin on the enhancement of cytotoxicity of ricin entrapped in various charged PEG-liposomes were highly related to their amount of cell association. The current study has demonstrated that by suitable adjustment of charge, density, and chain length of PEG on the surface of liposomes it would be possible to direct liposomal ricin to human tumor cells for their selective elimination in combination with monensin.”
“Contrasted with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), the self-assembly behavior and microstructure

of hydrophobically associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM) in aqueous solution have been studied by means of fluorescence spectrum, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and apparent viscosity test in this article. The fluorescent probe analysis indicates that the HAPAM molecules will form associating aggregates in pure water. MCC950 mouse The results show that HAPAM can easily self-assemble to form an aggregate by hydrophobic driving force in dilute aqueous solution. The association of hydrophobic groups of the HAPAM causes the formation of supermolecule, selleck screening library so there are associating aggregates formed at very low concentration and then

leads to the formation of network at a higher concentration. TEM and AFM measurements show that a distinct network structure has been formed in 1000 mg L(-1) of HAPAM solution, indicating the strong association of hydrophobic groups. These results are consistent with the viscosity measurement and reveal that the excellent viscosification of HAPAM is due to the association of hydrophobic groups in the aqueous solution. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 2397-2405, 2012″
“Postictal aphasia may be a feature of Todd’s paralysis or the presentation of aphasic nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). We describe a 74-year-old woman with three episodes of aphasic status epilepticus after prolonged generalized tonic-clonic seizures. In the first episode, the NCSE was not definitively diagnosed, but an increase in the epileptic medication led to resolution of the epileptic activity within 2 weeks. During the second episode, NCSE was terminated within 7 days under intensified antiepileptic treatment.

The proximal and

The proximal and learn more distal segments of the diaphysis were then aligned with use of an intramedullary rod as an anatomic axis template and with use of the contralateral extremity as a length and rotation template. The patients were assessed clinically and radiographically at a mean of thirty-one months (range, six to fifty-two months) after the osteotomy.

Results: Complete angular correction was achieved in each case; the amount of correction ranged from 20 to 200 in the coronal plane, from

01 to 320 in the sagittal plane, and from 00 to 250 in the axial plane (rotation). Correction of length ranged from 0 to 5 cm, and limb length was restored to within 2 cm in all patients. All osteotomy sites were healed clinically by six months. While no deep infections occurred, superficial wound dehiscence occurred in two patients along the approach for the longitudinal portion of the osteotomy, emphasizing the importance of careful soft tissue handling and patient Temsirolimus selection.

Conclusions: The clamshell osteotomy provides a useful way to correct many

forms of diaphyseal malunion by realigning the anatomic axis of the long bone with use of a reamed intramedullary rod as a template. This technique provides an alternative that could decrease preoperative planning time and complexity as well as decrease the need for intraoperative osteotomy precision in a correctly chosen subset of patients with diaphyseal deformities.”
“Three tumor cell lines of lung (A549), colon (HT29) and breast (MDA-MB-231) were used to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of ethanol and dichloromethane extracts and seven fractions obtained by flash column chromatography from the most bioactive extract of the sponge Leucetta aff. floridana. Ethanol extract showed antiproliferative activity on

three cell lines, whereas dichloromethane extract exhibited low activity. Four ethanol fractions showed antiproliferative activity, which was higher on A549 (IC50 for all four fractions: < 1.0 mu g/mL), followed by HT29 ( IC50: 2.5 mu g/mL; 2.2 mu pg/mL; 13.2 mu g/mL and 15.8 Fludarabine inhibitor mu g/mL) and finally, MDA-MB-231 (IC50: 2.8 rho g/mL, 83 mu g/mL; 133 mu g/mL and 20.5 mu g/mL). GC. MS analysis of the highest activity fraction permitted to identify sixteen fatty acids among saturated, branched-saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated of which hexadecanoic and hexadecenoic acids were the most abundant fatty acids.”
“Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa (EB-Pr) is an unusual variant of dystrophic EB. Potential genetic disease modifiers and metabolic factors have been investigated, but thus far no specific insight into this phenotype has emerged. We report an in-depth description of three patients diagnosed as having EB-Pr in whom this particular phenotype developed after scabies infestation and dramatically improved after full treatment.

Methods: We enrolled 31 patients (aged 59.4 +/- 9.7 years, 17 mal

Methods: We enrolled 31 patients (aged 59.4 +/- 9.7 years, 17 males) with central tumors and

secondary drowned lung on CT scan. A respiratory physician performed transthoracic https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Belinostat.html US to identify the target drowned lung tissue. Three US-assisted superficial FNA passes (<= 20 mm from the pleura) were followed by 3 deeper FNA passes (> 20 mm) aimed in the direction of a visible or approximated central mass. Rapid on-site evaluation of specimens was used. Results: Superficial FNA was diagnostic in 11 patients (35.5%), whereas deeper FNA was diagnostic in 23 patients (74.2%, p = 0.002). Deeper FNA confirmed malignancy in all cases with diagnostic superficial FNA. We observed no pneumothoraces or learn more major hemorrhage. All patients were ultimately diagnosed with malignancy (bronchogenic carcinoma, n = 30; lymphoma, n = 1). Conclusions: US-assisted FNA of drowned lung has an acceptable diagnostic yield and is safe. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Surgical treatment of thoracolumbar osteomyelitis consists of radical debridement, reconstruction of anterior column either with or without posterior stabilization. The objective of present study is to evaluate a case series of patients with osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine treated by single, posterior approach with posterior instrumentation and anterior column reconstruction.

Seventeen patients underwent clinical

and radiological evaluation pre and postoperatively with latest follow-up at 19 months (8-56 months) after surgery. Parameters assessed were site of infection, causative organism, angle of deformity, blood loss, duration of surgery, ICU stay, deformity correction, time to solid bony fusion, ambulatory status, neurologic status GSK1120212 supplier (ASIA impairment scale), and functional outcome (Kirkaldy-Willis criteria).

Mean operating time was 207 min and average blood loss 1,150 ml. Patients spent 2 (1-4) days

in ICU and were able to walk unaided 1.6 (1-2) days after surgery. Infection receded in all 17 patients postoperatively. Solid bony fusion occurred in 15 out of 17 patients (88 %) on average 6.3 months after surgery. Functional outcome was assessed as excellent or good in 82 % of cases. Average deformity correction was 8 (1-18) degrees, with loss of correction of 4 (0-19) degrees at final follow-up.

Single, posterior approach addressing both columns poses safe alternative in treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine. It proved to be less invasive resulting in faster postoperative recovery.”
“Background: There are only few reports about confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) for pulmonary imaging. In these studies, in contrast to gastrointestinal endoscopy, CLE was performed without fluorescein. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the value of fluorescein usage for CLE of the lung.

Methods: Analyses involved 568 papers and 736 population studies.

Methods: Analyses involved 568 papers and 736 population studies. The complete data set included 21, 838, 249 individuals and covered the 14 WHO sub-regions.

Results: Of the 687 studies that assessed hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence, 30% had low (<2% affected), 36% had intermediate (2-8% affected), Selleckchem Navitoclax and 34% had high (>8% affected) endemicity.

Median HBsAg seroprevalence differed by selected populations and among geographic regions. Overall, median seroprevalence was highest for ‘other’ populations, followed by patients, then by pregnant women and children. Median seroprevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) followed a similar endemicity pattern to that of HBsAg across the 14 WHO sub-regions. Median seroprevalence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) showed considerable variability within each population group, with the greatest potential for infectivity seen among children.

Conclusions: This population-based review provides a comprehensive assessment of the burden of HBV throughout the world. Significant differences in seroprevalence exist between WHO regions, study populations, and seromarker testing methods. The results presented https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AC-220.html in this study will enable health professionals to track worldwide reported seroprevalence

of hepatitis B markers. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Electrical resistances of roots and stems

of hydroponically raised willows (Salix schwerinii) were studied and related to root morphology. Willow cuttings with and without roots were set ERK pathway inhibitors in a constant electric field (effective voltage of 0.1 V, sine-AC, 128 Hz) in a hydroponic solution. The electrical resistance of different components in the measurement system was measured and analysed in relation to root surface area in contact with the cultivation solution. Axial resistivities of single root segments and of stems were measured. The results showed that the resistance decreased in relation to an increase in the contact surface area of the roots with the solution. The resistance depended strongly on the contact area of the stem with the solution, however, thus causing bias in the evaluation of root surface area. This work is a new contribution for the understanding of current pathways in the root system as exposed to an external electric field and for developing a non-destructive method to study plant roots accordingly. It may be concluded that the electrical resistance method is a useful non-destructive method to study roots and their physiological properties. Electrical analogues for roots and stem comprising resistors are discussed in relation to in situ measurements.”
“HIV-negative individuals with a family history of dementia (FHD) are more likely to develop dementia than those without FHD.

The process should be transparent, methodologically rigorous, and

The process should be transparent, methodologically rigorous, and consistent with the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and selleck kinase inhibitor Evaluation and Institute of Medicine recommendations. This effort should be collaborative across specialty/society groups and would benefit from patient and public input.

Payer policies and treatment guidelines need to be transparent and based on the highest quality evidence available. Clinicians from specialty/society groups, guideline developers and policy makers should collaborate on their development. This process would also benefit from public and patient input.”
“Use

of complementary and alternative medicine by males with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy was examined using interview reports from caregivers enrolled in the population-based Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network. Of the 200 caregivers

interviewed, 160 (80%) reported “”ever”" using complementary and alternative medicine for their affected children. Mind-body medicine (61.5%) was most frequently used, followed by biologically based practices (48.0%), manipulative and body-based SYN-117 cost practices (29.0%), and whole medical systems (8.5%). Caregivers reporting use of whole medical systems had higher education and income levels compared with nonusers; affected males had shorter disease duration. Caregivers reporting use of mind-body medicine, excluding aquatherapy, had higher education level compared with nonusers. Overall, complementary and alternative medicine use was high; disease duration, education, and income

levels influenced use. These Fedratinib cost findings have implications for developing clinical care protocols and monitoring possible interactions between complementary and alternative medicine and conventional medical therapies.”
“Babesiosis was reported in a California resident who received a transfusion of blood products collected in the disease-endemic northeastern region of the United States. Babesiosis should be considered year-round in the diagnosis of febrile and afebrile patients with abnormal blood cell counts who have received blood products from disease-endemic areas.”
“Background: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU) infants present hematologic and immunologic abnormalities at birth, and it remains to be clarified whether these abnormalities persist beyond infancy, for instance, affecting vaccination responses.

Methods: Thymic size and thymic output were evaluated in 20 HIV-EU children at 15 months of age and compared with 10 age-and gender-matched controls. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and immune activation as well as cytokine profiles were determined, and the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) vaccination was evaluated.

Results: Thymic size was significantly lower in HIV-EU children (P = 0.011). However, CD4 and CD8 counts did not differ between HIV-EU and control children.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that AcrySof SA60AT and AF-1 VA-6

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that AcrySof SA60AT and AF-1 VA-60BB IOLs are likely to develop glistenings over time and that the former may develop whitening.”
“Background: Dual infection with diverse HIV strains can foster the emergence of recombinants. The resulting increase in viral genetic diversity is a major challenge for vaccine development HIV treatment. In this study we aim to investigate the socio demographic factors associated with an increasing level of genetic diversity among HIV strains in a population of drug-users in Northern Thailand.

Methods: From 1999 through 2000,2231 volunteers were enrolled in the Opiate-Users

Research in Chiang Mai, Caspase inhibitor Thailand. HIV subtype analysis

was conducted among those HIV-1 seropositive (n = 347) using a multi-region hybridization assay. Social and demographic variables were assessed using a structured questionnaire.

Results: Overall, 336/347 (96.8%) of the samples could be typed. 81.8% were CRF01_AE, 3.9% were subtype B, 9.2% were recombinants MI-503 order (mostly between CRF01_AE and B) and 5.1% were dual infections. Dual infections were more frequent among those with a lower education level (AOR: 5.2; 95% Cl 1.4-20.3), those who have initiated injecting in the last 3 years (AOR: 3.9; 95% Cl 1.1-14.6), and those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 7.0; 95% Cl 1.5-34.1). Both recombinant strains and dual infection were more frequent among those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 5.3;

95% CI 1.6-17.1).

Conclusion: To limit the expanding complexity of HIV-1 strains, early intervention should be aimed at reduction in needle sharing, especially among new intravenous drug users. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The yolk sac is an embryonic membrane that is essential for the embryo’s initial survival in many mammals. It also plays an important role in the production of proteins necessary for development. We studied proteins of the yolk sac in bovine embryos at PD98059 datasheet up to 40 days of gestation. We examined the yolk sac of 17 bovine embryos at different gestational periods, measuring a-fetoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and transferrin. This experiment was carried out by Western blot technique, associated with electrophoresis on a 6% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel. Mouse monoclonal antibody anti-human-alpha-fetoprotein, mouse antibody anti-human-transferrin and rabbit polyclonal anti-human-alpha-1-antitrypsin were used as primary antibodies, and conjugated peroxidase as a secondary antibody. We detected the three proteins in some of the yolk sac samples; however, the bands in some specimens (samples) were weak, maybe a result of poor antigen-antibody reaction, since the antibodies used in this study were not specific to bovine proteins.