In the flocculation system, the flocculation behavior of BC suspensions by anionic polyacrylamide (PAM-A)
and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the presence of a surfactant mixture were investigated. The results suggested that when BC suspensions were pretreated with the surfactant mixture, the existence of SDBS made the surface of BC own more negative charges. The flocculation ability of PAM-A was governed mainly by bridging. Addition Epigenetic inhibitor manufacturer of PAM-A could not get a higher flocculating efficiency in two addition way. When PAC was added into AEO-9-SDBS pretreated BC suspension solution, the electrostatic attraction and the charge neutralization between PAC and BC particles were enhanced significantly.”
“Limited hip flexion may lead to a poor lumbopelvic motion during seated active hip flexion in people with low-back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to compare lumbopelvic motion during seated hip flexion between subjects with and https://www.selleckchem.com/products/napabucasin.html without LBP accompanying limited hip flexion. Fifteen patients with LBP accompanying limited hip flexion and 16 healthy subjects were
recruited. The subjects performed seated hip flexion with the dominant leg three times. A three-dimensional motion-analysis system was used to measure lumbopelvic motion during seated hip flexion. During seated active hip flexion, the angle of hip flexion was significantly lower in patients with LBP accompanying limited hip flexion (17.4 +/- A 4.4 in the LBP group, 20.8 +/- A 2.6 in the healthy group; t = 2.63, p = 0.014). The angle of the lumbar flexion (4.8 +/- A 2.2 in the LBP group, 2.6 +/- A 2.0 in the healthy group; t = -2.96, p = 0.006) and posterior pelvic tilting (5.0 +/- A 2.6 in the LBP group, 2.9 +/- A 2.0 in the healthy group; t = 2.48 p = 0.019), however, were significantly greater in patients with this condition. The results of this study suggest that limited hip flexion in LBP can contribute to excessive lumbar flexion and posterior
pelvic tilting during hip flexion in the sitting position. Further studies are required to confirm whether improving the hip flexion range of motion can reduce excessive lumbar flexion in patients with LBP accompanying limited hip flexion.”
“Monoclonal find more antibodies are widely used for the treatment of various diseases, and because therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are stored in an aqueous solution or in a lyophilized state, the preparation of a stabilizing formulation that prevents their deterioration (degradation and aggregation) is crucial. Given the structural similarities of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) framework regions and a diversity of only four subclasses, we aimed to find common conditions that stabilize many different antibodies.
hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and lipoaspirate, respectively. Rat lungs were decellularized with CHAPS detergent, followed by seeding the matrix with hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs. Under appropriate culture conditions, both human MSC populations attached to and proliferated within the lung tissue scaffold. In addition, cells were capable of type 2 pneumocyte differentiation, as assessed by marker expression of surfactant protein C (pro-SPC) at the protein and the RNA level, and by Napabucasin molecular weight the presence of lamellar bodies by transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, hAT-MSCs
contributed to Clara-like cells that lined the airways in the lung scaffolds, whereas the hBM-MSCs did not. We also tested the differentiation
potential of MSCs on different extracellular matrix components in vitro, and found that protein substrate influences MSC epithelial differentiation. Together our data show the capacity for human MSCs to differentiate toward lung epithelial phenotypes, and the possibility of using these cells for lung cell therapies and tissue engineering.”
“By using a genome-wide N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced dominant mutagenesis screen in mice, a founder with low bone mineral density (BMD) was identified. Mapping and sequencing revealed a T to C transition in a splice donor of the collagen alpha1 type I (Col1a1) gene, resulting in the skipping of exon 9 and a predicted 18-amino acid deletion within the N-terminal region of the triple helical domain of Col1a1. Col1a1(Jrt)/+ mice were smaller in size, had lower BMD associated with decreased bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) and FK228 clinical trial reduced trabecular number, and furthermore exhibited mechanically weak, brittle, fracture-prone bones, a hallmark of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Several
markers of osteoblast differentiation were upregulated in mutant bone, and histomorphometry Fer-1 showed that the proportion of trabecular bone surfaces covered by activated osteoblasts (Ob.S/BS and N.Ob/BS) was elevated, but bone surfaces undergoing resorption (Oc.S/BS and N.Oc/BS) were not. The number of bone marrow stromal osteoprogenitors (CFU-ALP) was unaffected, but mineralization was decreased in cultures from young Col1a1(Jrt)/+ versus +/+ mice. Total collagen and type I collagen content of matrices deposited by Col1a1(Jrt)/+ dermal fibroblasts in culture was approximate to 40% and 30%, respectively, that of +/+ cells, suggesting that mutant collagen chains exerted a dominant negative effect on type I collagen biosynthesis. Mutant collagen fibrils were also markedly smaller in diameter than +/+ fibrils in bone, tendon, and extracellular matrices deposited by dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Col1a1(Jrt)/+ mice also exhibited traits associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS): Their skin had reduced tensile properties, tail tendon appeared more frayed, and a third of the young adult mice had noticeable curvature of the spine.
For polymeric constructs, increasing dose intensity and cumulative dose strongly affects the therapeutic index and reveals a major therapeutic advantage for the FR-targeted formulation. All DDS were able to abrogate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This study constitutes the first side-by-side comparison of two receptor-targeted ligand-bearing systems, polymer therapeutics versus nanoparticulate systems, evaluated in
the same mouse tumor model BMS-777607 solubility dmso at several dosing regimens. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of this work was to test whether fractional anisotropy (FA) can contribute to the diagnosis and grading of prostate cancer. Turbo spin echo T2-weighted (T2W) and single shot echo planar imaging diffusion tensor imaging (EPI DTI) data were collected from 13 subjects with biopsy proven prostate cancer prior to surgical removal of the gland. Rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement Lazertinib in vivo (RARE) T2W and spin-echo DTI data were acquired ex-vivo from the fixed prostatectomy specimens. Digitized whole mount histology sections, examined and annotated by a pathologist, were registered to the in-vivo and ex-vivo DTI data, and the average values of apparent diffusion
coefficient (ADC) and FA were calculated from ROIs encompassing normal and cancerous peripheral zone (PZ). In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to assess the dependence of the apparent FA on the ADC values for
different signal to noise ratios (SNRs). ADC values were significantly lower in tumors than in normal PZ both in-vivo and ex-vivo, while the difference in FA values between tumors and normal PZ was significant only in-vivo. Paired t-test showed significant difference between in-vivo and ex-vivo FA values in tumors, but not in the normal PZ The simulations showed that lower SNR results in an increasing overestimation of the FA values with decreasing ADC. These results suggest that the in-vivo increase in FA values in tumors is due to low SNR, rather than the presence of cancer. The results of this study suggest that FA does not BI 6727 order contribute significantly to the diagnostic capabilities of DTI in prostate cancer. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The value and predictive power of nonclinical studies for potential effects of investigational medicinal products in humans is often debated. The subject of general predictivity of animal toxicity studies has been addressed on several occasions, with one of the most recent efforts being conducted by an ILSI Task Group [Olson H, et al. Concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and animals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2000; 32: 56-67].
Latent growth analyses were performed on the subsample of 1334(89%) smokers who did not reach 6-month prolonged abstinence within the 2-year follow-up period. CPD was assessed at baseline and at 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups.\n\nResults: Both interventions led to small but significant reductions in CPD, and they did not differ in efficacy. Treatment effects occurred within the first 6 months and could be sustained by the continuing smokers until the 24-month follow-up.\n\nConclusions: Present results complement earlier findings of increased abstinence rates in the total sample. It can be concluded that, even if applied to unselected samples of smokers, from which only a minority initially intends to change, both brief
counseling strategies are able to significantly decrease tobacco consumption. They hence appear to provide a means to reducing tobacco-related disease among general medical practice patients. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2606368.html reserved.”
“The SiO2: Tb, Yb inverse opals with photonic band gap at 465 or 543 nm were prepared, and an effect of photonic band gap on upconversion spontaneous emission
from Tb3+ was investigated. The results show that the photonic band gap has a significant influence on the upconversion emission of the SiO2: Tb, Yb inverse opals. The upconversion luminescence of the Tb3+ ions is suppressed in the inverse opal compared with the luminescence of that of the reference sample. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The association between education AZD7762 and good health is well established, but Caspase-independent apoptosis whether the strength of the association depends on other social statuses is not. We test a theory of resource substitution which predicts a larger correlation between education and health (measured for physical impairment) for people who grew up in families with poorly-educated parents than for those whose parents were well educated. This is supported in the Aging, Status, and Sense of control (ASOC) survey, a representative national U.S. sample with data collected in 1995, 1998, and 2001. The reason that parental education matters more to people who are poorly educated
themselves is due to an unhealthy lifestyle, specifically to smoking and being overweight. Finally, as the poorly educated age, the negative health effects of their parents’ low educational attainment get worse. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We present health and demographic surveillance system data to assess associations with health care utilization and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) service receipt in a high HIV prevalence area of western Kenya. Eighty-six percent of 15,302 residents indicated a facility/clinician for routine medical services; 60% reported active (within the past year) attendance. Only 34% reported a previous HIV test, and self-reported HIV prevalence was 6%. Active attendees lived only slightly closer to their reported service site (2.8 versus 3.1 km; P smaller than 0.
Of the two dominant emm-types, 1 and 12 (28 center dot 2% and 8 center dot 5%, respectively), the proportion of emm-type 12 remained stable during the study period, whereas emm-type 1 rates fluctuated considerably. Strains of emm-type 1 from children were associated with erythromycin susceptibility, STSS and intensive-care-unit admission, whereas emm-type 12 isolates from adults were associated with erythromycin and clindamycin resistance. Finally, specific emm-types were detected exclusively in adults or in children. In conclusion, several clinical and epidemiological differences were detected, that could prove useful in designing age-focused strategies for prevention
and treatment of iGAS infections.”
“BackgroundThe primary aim was to compare arm lymphoedema after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone versus axillary
lymph node selleck compound dissection (ALND) in women with Selonsertib mw node-negative and node-positive breast cancer. The secondary aim was to examine the potential association between self-reported and objectively measured arm lymphoedema. MethodsWomen who had surgery during 1999-2004 for invasive breast cancer in four centres in Sweden were included. The study groups were defined by the axillary procedure performed and the presence of axillary metastases: SLNB alone, ALND without axillary metastases, and ALND with axillary metastases. Before surgery, and 1, 2 and 3years after operation, arm volume was measured and a questionnaire regarding symptoms of arm lymphoedema was completed.
A mixed model was used to determine the adjusted mean difference in arm volume between the study groups, and generalized estimating equations were employed PD0325901 to determine differences in self-reported arm lymphoedema. ResultsOne hundred and forty women had SLNB alone, 125 had node-negative ALND and 155 node-positive ALND. Women who underwent SLNB had no increase in postoperative arm volume over time, whereas both ALND groups showed a significant increase. The risk of self-reported arm lymphoedema 1, 2 and 3years after surgery was significantly lower in the SLNB group compared with that in both ALND groups. Three years after surgery there was a significant association between increased arm volume and self-reported symptoms of arm lymphoedema. ConclusionSLNB is associated with a minimal risk of increased arm volume and few symptoms of arm lymphoedema, significantly less than after ALND, regardless of lymph node status. Minimal after sentinel node biopsy”
“The present study, through finite element simulations, shows the geometric effects of a bioinspired solid on pressure and impulse mitigation for an elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic material. Because of the bioinspired geometries, stress wave mitigation became apparent in a nonintuitive manner such that potential real-world applications in human protective gear designs are realizable.
The aim was to determine if neonatal exposure to permethrin (PERM) pesticide, at a low dosage that does not produce signs of obvious abnormalities, could represent a risk for the onset of diseases later in the life. Methods: Neonatal rats (from postnatal day 6 to 21) were treated daily by gavage with a dose of PERM (34 mg/kg) close to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), and hippocampal
morphology and function of synapses were investigated in adulthood. Fear conditioning, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests were used to assess cognitive skills in rats, whereas electron microscopy analysis was used to investigate hippocampal morphological changes that occurred in adults. Results: In both contextual and HM781-36B mouse tone fear conditioning tests, PERM-treated rats showed a decreased freezing. In the passive avoidance test, www.selleckchem.com/products/nu7441.html the consolidation of the inhibitory avoidance was time-limited: the memory was not impaired for the first 24 h, whereas the information was not retained 72 h following training. The same trend was observed in the spatial reference memories acquired by Morris water maze. In PERM-treated rats, electron microscopy
analysis revealed a decrease of synapses and surface densities in the stratum moleculare of CA1, in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the mossy fibers of the hippocampal areas together with a decrease of perforated synapses in learn more the stratum moleculare of CA1 and in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Conclusions: Early-life permethrin exposure imparts long-lasting consequences on the hippocampus such as impairment of long-term memory storage and synaptic morphology.”
“Gamma knife surgery (GKS) is used for the treatment of various brain diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying brain injury following irradiation remain to be elucidated. Given that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is closely associated with pathological angiogenesis and the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), the present study was designed to analyze temporal alterations in VEGF expression in the cerebral cortex and the
effect of VEGF on cerebral edema in rats following GKS. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to GKS at maximum doses of 60 Gy. Animals were sacrificed between 4 and 24 weeks after GKS. Immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were employed for detecting VEGF expression. The vessel density was measured by CD31(+) cell count and vascular structures were examined using electron microscopy. Brain water content and BBB permeability were measured in the present study. VEGF expression in the irradiated cortex progressively increased until 16 weeks after GKS when the maximal expression was reached, and then gradually decreased to the control level 24 weeks after GKS. These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR.
Results Preconditioning ramp currents of weak strengths increased membrane excitability. Stronger preconditioning ramp currents enhanced the potency of lidocaine and TTX to increase excitability thresholds. In A and C fibers stimulated with ramp currents of 110% (A fibers) and 40% (C fibers), lidocaine (80M) induced a 168 +/- 15% (p < 0.001) and 302 +/- 23% (p < 0.001) increase compound inhibitor in threshold, respectively (no ramp current: 135 +/- 9% and 124 +/- 4%, respectively). TTX (16nM) induced an increase in threshold of 455 +/- 45% (p < 0.001) and 214
+/- 22% (p = 0.005), respectively (no ramp current: 205 +/- 12% and 128 +/- 6%, respectively). Conclusions Slow preconditioning ramp stimuli inactivate sodium currents. In the presence of sodium channel blockers, stronger ramp stimuli cause an increase in threshold, which is larger than that caused by the sodium channel blocker alone. Therefore, we conclude that small depolarizing ramp currents could be used to increase excitability threshold in the presence of low concentrations of local anesthetics. These additive effects might represent Momelotinib a target to address with peripheral nerve stimulation in order to suppress afferent pain signaling.”
Eukaryotic genomes are replicated during S phase according to a temporal program. Several determinants control the timing of origin firing, including the chromatin environment and epigenetic modifications. However, how chromatin structure influences the timing of the activation
of specific origins is still poorly understood. Results: By performing high-resolution analysis of genome-wide nucleosome positioning we have identified different chromatin architectures at early and late replication origins. These different patterns are PFTα datasheet already established in G1 and are tightly correlated with the organization of adjacent transcription units. Moreover, specific early and late nucleosomal patterns are fixed robustly, even in rpd3 mutants in which histone acetylation and origin timing have been significantly altered. Nevertheless, higher histone acetylation levels correlate with the local modulation of chromatin structure, leading to increased origin accessibility. In addition, we conducted parallel analyses of replication and nucleosome dynamics that revealed that chromatin structure at origins is modulated during origin activation. Conclusions: Our results show that early and late replication origins present distinctive nucleosomal configurations, which are preferentially associated to different genomic regions. Our data also reveal that origin structure is dynamic and can be locally modulated by histone deacetylation, as well as by origin activation. These data offer novel insight into the contribution of chromatin structure to origin selection and firing in budding yeast.
Mice separated into five experimental groups were followed: control (C), high-fat diet (HF), HF with calcium (Ca), HF plus CLA and HF with both Ca and CLA. Plasma metabolites and fatty acids were determined by commercial kits and gas chromatography, PKC412 respectively. Both dietary calcium and
CLA supplementation contributed to lower body fat gain under a HF diet. Maximum efficacy was seen with calcium; no additional effect was associated with the combined treatment with CLA. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and HOMA index were in accordance with an altered glucose/insulin homeostasis in the HF and HF + CLA groups, whereas control levels were attained under Ca-enriched diets. Plasma fatty acids showed minor changes associated to CLA treatment, but a high impact on PUFA was observed under Ca-enriched diets. Our results show that the mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effects of calcium supplementation is mediated mainly by changes in PUFA plasma profile. In addition, the lack of synergy on body weight reduction in combination
with associated lipid profiles of calcium and CLA suggests that calcium may interfere with absorption and/or bioactivity of CLA, which can be of relevance when using CLA-fortified dairy products against human obesity.”
“Oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion are implicated in mycocystin hepatotoxicity. To investigate the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in microcystin-induced liver injury, Nrf2-null, wild-type, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice were treated with microcystin (50 AR-13324 mu g/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Microcystin increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and caused extensive inflammation and necrosis in Nrf2-null and wild-type mice, but not in Keap1-HKO mice. Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated
in microcystin-induced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as neutrophil-specific chemokines mKC and MIP-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-6. The increased expression of these pro-inflammatory genes was attenuated Selleckchem SB273005 in Keap1-HKO mice. Nrf2 and Nqo1 mRNA and protein were higher in Keap1-HKO mice at constitutive levels and after microcystin. To further investigate the mechanism of the protection, hepatic GSH and the mRNA of GSH-related enzymes were determined. Microcystin markedly depleted liver GSH by 60-70% in Nrf2 and WT mice but only 35% in Keap1-HKO mice. The mRNAs of GSH conjugation and peroxide reduction enzymes, such as Gst alpha 1, Gst alpha 4, Gst mu, and Gpx2 were higher in livers of Keap1-HKO mice, together with higher expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for GSH synthesis (Gclc). Organic anion transport polypeptides were increased by microcystin with the most increase in Keap1-HKO mice.
Post-column on-line coupling of the ABTS(center dot+) scavenging assay with HPLC-DAD enabled qualitative evaluation of the relative contribution of individual phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity. The
flavan-3-ols, neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside displayed the largest antioxidant response peaks.”
“Background Delirium is a common and deleterious complication in critically ill patients after surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk Selleckchem Navitoclax factors of delirium in critically ill patients after non-cardiac surgery, and to investigate the relationship between the serum cortisol level and the occurrence of postoperative delirium.\n\nMethods In a prospective cohort study, 164 consecutive patients who were admitted to the surgical intensive care unit after non-cardiac surgery were enrolled. Baseline characteristics and perioperative variables were collected. Blood samples were obtained on the first postoperative day and serum cortisol concentrations were measured.
Delirium was assessed HM781-36B research buy using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale until the seventh postoperative day or the disappearance of delirious symptoms.\n\nResults Postoperative delirium occurred in 44.5% of patients (73 of 164). The median time to first onset of delirium is 0 (range 0 to 5 days) and the median duration of delirium is 3 (1 to 13) days. Independent risk factors of postoperative delirium included increasing age (odds ratio (OR) 2.646, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.431 to 4.890, P=0.002), a history of previous stroke (OR 4.499, 95%CI 1.228 to 16.481, P=0.023), high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on surgical intensive care unite admission (OR 1.391, 95% CI 1.201 to 1.612, P<0.001), and high serum cortisol level on the 1st postoperative day (OR 3.381, 95%CI 1.690 to 6.765, P=0.001). The development of delirium was linked to higher incidence Cilengitide of postoperative complications (28.8% vs. 7.7%,
P<0.001), and longer duration of hospitalization (18 (7 to 74) days vs. 13 (3 to 48) days, P<0.001).\n\nConclusions Delirium was a frequent complication in critically ill patients after non-cardiac surgery. High serum cortisol level was associated with increased incidence of postoperative delirium. Chin Med J 2010;123(8):993-999″
“Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in modulating proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes. The fetal liver stromal cell lines(FLSCs) expressing EPO has been established steadily by lentiviral system. The EPO gene was cloned from human fetal liver by RT-PCR. The EPO recombinant lentiviral plasmid was steadily transfected into FLSCs.
The control property may be the ratio of brittle to ductile areas, perhaps determined by the influence of mantle wedge serpentinization on the plate interface. The spatial variation of the controlling property seems to be characterized by striations in tremor source distribution, which follows either the current or previous plate subduction directions. This suggests that the striations and corresponding interface properties are formed through the subduction of inhomogeneous structure, such as seamounts, for periods as long as ten million years.”
“Adenosine receptors co-localize
with dopamine receptors on medium spiny nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons where they antagonize dopamine receptor activity. It remains unclear whether adenosine receptor stimulation in the NAc restores cocaine-induced enhancements in dopamine receptor sensitivity. The goal of these studies was to determine STAT inhibitor whether stimulating A(1) or A(2A) receptors in the NAc reduces the expression of cocaine
sensitization. Rats were sensitized with 7 daily treatments of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Following one-week withdrawal, the effects of intra-NAc microinjections of the adenosine kinase inhibitor (ABT-702), the adenosine deaminase inhibitor (deoxycoformycin: DCF), the specific A(1) receptor agonist (CPA) and the specific A(2A) receptor agonist (CGS 21680) were tested on the behavioral expression of cocaine sensitization. The results indicate that intra-NAc pretreatment of ABT-702 and DCF dose-dependently blocked the expression of cocaine sensitization while having no effects on FK228 concentration acute cocaine sensitivity, suggesting that upregulation of endogenous adenosine in the accumbens is sufficient selleck chemical to non-selectively stimulate adenosine receptors and reverse the expression of cocaine sensitization. Intra-NAc treatment of CPA significantly inhibited the expression of cocaine sensitization, which was reversed by both A(1)
and A(2A) receptor antagonism. Intra-NAc treatment of CGS 21680 also significantly inhibited the expression of cocaine sensitization, which was selectively reversed by A(2A), but not A(1), receptor antagonism. Finally. CGS 21680 also inhibited the expression of quinpirole cross-sensitization. Together, these findings suggest that adenosine receptor stimulation in the NAc is sufficient to reverse the behavioral expression of cocaine sensitization and that A(2A) receptors blunt cocaine-induced sensitization of postsynaptic D-2 receptors. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We previously identified a gene, nuclear receptor-interaction protein (NRIP), which functions as a transcription cofactor in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and human papillomavirus E2 (HPV E2)-driven gene expression. Here, we comprehensively evaluated the role of NRIP in HPV-16 gene expression. NRIP acts as a transcription cofactor to enhance GR-regulated HPV-16 gene expression in the presence of hormone.