Finally, the

Finally, the learn more importance of extraction techniques of bioactive compounds designated as food additives is also included. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. The effect of the intrarenal arterial resistance index (RI) on long-term renal functions is not well known. We examined the predictive value of intrarenal RI on long-term allograft outcomes. Methods. We retrospectively investigated 121 stable renal transplant

recipients, followed for a mean of 63.21 19.9 months after renal transplant. Patients with complications during the first six months after transplant were not included. Color Doppler ultrasonography was done to calculate the intrarenal RI within the first four weeks after transplant. Results. Older recipient age, high pulse pressure, active smoking, and proteinuria were associated with a higher intrarenal RI. Multivariate analyses revealed that renal RI and donor age were independent predictors of allograft outcome. Kaplan-Meier estimates of cumulative graft AS1842856 survival were significantly worse

in patients who had an RI of 0.7 or more than they were in patients who had an RI of less than 0.7 (p = .005). Development of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) was significantly higher in patients who had an RI of 0.7 or more (p = .02). Conclusions. Renal RI determined within the first month after renal transplant predicts long-term allograft function and development of CAN in renal transplant recipients.”
“Colpexin Sphere was effective for advanced pelvic organ prolapse. ABT-263 datasheet The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Colpexin Sphere in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage I or II on pelvic floor muscle strength, quality of life, and POP stage.

Women were randomly divided into Colpexin Sphere with pelvic floor muscle exercise group and exercise only group for a 16-week period. They had Colpexin pull test and digital test every 4 weeks. Quality of life and POP stage were re-evaluated at the end of treatment.

Ninety-one women were recruited and 85 completed. Colpexin Sphere

plus pelvic floor exercise improved pelvic floor muscle strength. There was no significant difference between both groups. Vaginal symptom score decreased in both groups while the stages of prolapse did not change.

Colpexin Sphere plus pelvic floor exercise and exercise alone improved pelvic floor muscle strength.”
“Background: Low serum concentrations of vitamin A and zinc are common in tuberculosis and may have an adverse effect on host cell-mediated responses. The role of adjunctive micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes is uncertain.

Objective: The objective was to assess the efficacy of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on sputum smear and culture conversion and time to culture detection in adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

For this purpose, a total of 20 mongrel dogs were divided into fo

For this purpose, a total of 20 mongrel dogs were divided into four groups: control, choline (C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and LPS + C. Dogs in the control group were injected with 0.9% NaCl (0.2 ml/kg, i.v.). Dogs in C and LPS + C groups received choline chloride (20 mg/kg, i.v., three times with 4 h

intervals). Endotoxin was injected (0.02 mg/kg, i.v., once) to the dogs of LPS and LPS + C groups. Statistically significant decreases in BChE and PON1 activities in selleck chemicals llc LPS group were detected 24 and 48 h post injection, respectively. No statistically significant changes in BChE and PON1 activities at different times were detected in control, C, or LPS + C groups. In conclusion, the data obtained in present study revealed a decrease in serum BChE and PON1 activities in dogs during experimentally induced endotoxemia and that choline administration attenuates these changes. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A subgroup of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients remains refractory to conventional treatments. For them, a

new stereotactic NVP-BSK805 in vivo radiosurgery has been recently developed: the ventral capsular/ventral striatal (VC/VS) gamma capsulotomy. The authors aim to report efficacy and adverse events of VC/VS gamma capsulotomy. Five refractory OCD patients were selected. The authors assessed OCD, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and side effects pre- and postoperatively. Three patients (60%) met response criteria 48 months after surgery. Adverse effects were episodic and transient. Ventral capsular/ventral striatal gamma capsulotomy

holds therapeutic promise, with few adverse effects. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2009; 21:381-392)”
“Five refractory obsessive-compulsive patients were assessed using a neuropsychological battery after GSI-IX manufacturer a modified gamma knife capsulotomy. The surgical technique was not associated with profound cognitive deficits. The authors found improvements in attention, vocabulary, learning, abstract reasoning, and memory. (The journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2009; 21:393-397)”
“To investigate effective new rabies vaccines, a fusion protein consisting of the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein and the heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit of Escherichia coli (LTB) was successfully constructed and delivered in a live attenuated Salmonella strain LH430. Mice were immunised with LH430 carrying pVAX1-G, pVAX1-G-LTB or pVAX1-ori-G-LTB. The antibody titres of mice immunised with oral LH430 carrying pVAX1-G-LTB or pVAX1-ori-G-LTB were significantly higher than those of pVAX1-G-immunised mice. The results of the challenge with the rabies virus standard strain (CVS-11) showed that the LH430 strain carrying the G-LTB gene induced immunity and elevated IL-2 levels in immunised mice (**P < 0.01). whereas LH430 carrying pVAX1-G did not contribute to protection.

The secondary end point was clinical effectiveness, defined as re

The secondary end point was clinical effectiveness, defined as recurrent vertebrobasilar ischemic symptoms within 12 months after stent placement and restenosis greater than or equal to 50% of the treated VA segment within 12 months after stent placement.

Results: The degree of stenosis ranged from 46% to 83% (mean, 67.3% +/- 11.9). The technical success rate GNS-1480 cell line was 100%. Procedure-related complication rate, mortality rate,

and permanent neurologic morbidity rate at 30-day follow-up were 0%. At 12-month follow-up, no patient reported recurrent vertebrobasilar ischemic symptoms or had VA restenosis.

Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that use of paclitaxel-eluting stents in angioplasty and to treat symptomatic atherosclerotic ostial VA stenosis are feasible and promising in terms of potential safety and effectiveness in prevention of recurrent ischemia and restenosis. These results could be helpful in the formulation of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial. (C) RSNA, 2009″
“Background: Little is known about the clinical and anatomic progression of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. The purpose of our study was selleck to assess if deterioration

in rotator cuff tear anatomy would be correlated to the development of symptoms.

Methods: Fifty patients with initially asymptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears were followed clinically, sonographically, and by magnetic resonance imaging over three years. Changes of tear size, muscle atrophy, fatty degeneration, and condition of the long head of the biceps tendon were compared between tears that developed symptoms and those that did not.

Results: Eighteen of fifty tears developed symptoms during follow-up. There was a significantly larger increase (p = 0.02) in the mean tear size in the newly

symptomatic group (10.6 mm) when compared with the still-asymptomatic group (3.3 mm). The rate of progressing to advanced muscle atrophy was higher (p = 0.08) in the newly symptomatic group (35% [six of seventeen subjects]) when ATG-016 compared with the still-asymptomatic group (12% [three of twenty-five subjects]). The rate of fatty degeneration was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the newly symptomatic group (35% [six of seventeen subjects]) when compared with the still-asymptomatic group (4% [one of twenty-five subjects]). The rate of pathology of the long head of the biceps tendon was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the newly symptomatic group (33% [six of eighteen subjects]) when compared with the still-asymptomatic group (6% [two of thirty-two subjects]).

Conclusions: During a relatively short-term follow-up, a substantial percentage of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears became symptomatic and underwent anatomic deterioration. Increase in tear size and decrease of muscle quality were correlated to the development of symptoms.

The separation of 5-fluorouracil was carried out on a C18 reverse

The separation of 5-fluorouracil was carried out on a C18 reverse phase column using 40 mM KH2PO4 as

mobile phase. The ultraviolet detection wavelength was 260 nm. selleck screening library The HPLC method was validated and the response of the drug was linear in the concentration range of 20 mu g ml(-1) to 550 mu g ml(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The % R. S. D. values for intra-day and inter-day precision were determined as <0.2% and <1% respectively. Infrared spectroscopic measurements were carried out in diffuse reflectance and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes. The study reveals that 5-flurouracil shows mild degradation up to 275 degrees C and major degradation at about 285 degrees C. It undergoes a degradation of about 22% when exposed to stress conditions of acidic hydrolysis. A major degradation of about

97% was observed under alkaline condition. The drug undergoes degradation from 26% to 41% when exposed to oxidative condition. The drug remains stable when exposed to UV irradiations.”
“In this work, the self-monitoring capability of epoxy matrix-carbon fiber composites has been studied. Different concentrations and arrangements of reinforcements were used, including random chopped, unidirectional and bi-directional continuous carbon fibers, weaved and nonweaved. Mechanical properties were determined by uniaxial tensile tests. The composite electric to mechanical behavior was established by determining its electrical resistivity variation as a function of the stress-strain curve. It was observed that the composites electrical Prexasertib cell line resistance increased during tensile tests,

a trend that indicates piezoresistive behavior. The increase was linear for the chopped reinforced composites, while it exhibits different slopes in”
“We report synthesis of phase selleck products pure multiferroic YMnO3 thin films on sapphire (0001) with conducting ZnGaO buffer contact layer. Films were prepared by using pulsed laser deposition technique and characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive absorption spectroscopy, and magnetic field dependent dielectric measurement techniques. Structural characterizations indicated phase purity and epitaxial nature of the films. The dielectric response indicated an anomaly in dielectric constant epsilon and tan delta in the vicinity of 30 K, well below the bulk Neacuteel temperature similar to 70 K. This anomaly in epsilon and tan delta and its magnetic field dependence is explained as an influence of strain due to lattice mismatch between the substrate and YMnO3 film. A substantial enhancement in magnetocapacitance was also observed for magnetic field applied parallel to ab plane of the film. Our results show that it is possible to tune the multiferroic property of YMnO3 via changes in ferroelastic route.

Results: Fetal EPC counts were significantly decreased in the FGR

Results: Fetal EPC counts were significantly decreased in the FGR group compared with normal controls. In the FGR group, the EPC differentiation time was prolonged, OEC colonies were much less formed, the staining intensity of SA-beta-gal was relatively increased and the telomerase activity of EPCs was significantly decreased, compared with normal pregnancy (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: The fetal EPCs in

FGR pregnancies were decreased, functionally impaired and senescently altered.”
“A new furoquinoline alkaloid, 5-hydroxydictamnine, along with -sitosterol was isolated from the heartwood of Atalantia monophylla. The structure of this alkaloid was established by chemical and spectral U0126 nmr evidences together

with a nuclear overhauser effect (NOE) experiment.”
“Background The frequently used 35 kg/m(2) body mass index (BMI) and 50 % excess weight loss (%EWL) criteria are no longer adequate for defining the success of a bariatric or metabolic surgery. It is not clear whether they are still useful to simply determine the sufficiency of a patient’s postoperative weight selleck screening library loss. An alternative way of defining sufficient weight loss is presented, using weight loss percentile charts of large representative series as a benchmark.

Methods Gastric bypass weight loss results from the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) with a parts per thousand yen2 years of follow-up are presented with percentiles in function of postoperative time and their nadir results in function of initial BMI using different outcome metrics. These percentiles are compared with the BMI35 and 50 %EWL criteria.

Results Of 49,098 patients eligible for a parts per thousand yen2 years of follow-up, 8,945 had reported weight loss at a parts per thousand yen2 years (20.0 % male, mean initial BMI 47.7 kg/m(2)). They reached nadir BMI at a mean of 603 days. Their 50th percentiles surpassed both 50 %EWL and BMI35 after 135 days. More than 95 % achieved 50 %EWL; more than 75 % achieved BMI35. BMI and

%EWL results are influenced more by initial BMI than total weight loss (%TWL) results.

Conclusions BOLD gastric bypass weight loss data are presented with percentile curves. BMI and %EWL are clearly not suited for this purpose. Provided that follow-up data AS1842856 are solid, %TWL-based percentile charts can constitute neutral benchmarks for defining sufficient postoperative weight loss over time. Criteria for overall success, however, should consider clear goals of health improvement, including metabolic aspects. Frequently used criteria 50 %EWL and BMI35 are inadequate for both. Their static weight loss components do not match the found percentiles and their health improvement components do not match known metabolic criteria.”
“Objective: To assess the risk of intra-uterine death (IUD) after external cephalic version (ECV).

Furthermore, measurement of circulating levels of cardiac

Furthermore, measurement of circulating levels of cardiac

biomarkers could improve the diagnostic assessm+ent. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy contributes to various complications in cirrhosis, especially as an important factor in the development of hepatic nephropathy. Additionally, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy seems to be associated with the development of heart failure in relation to invasive procedures such as shunt insertion and liver transplantation. Current pharmacological treatment is nonspecific and directed towards left ventricular failure, and liver transplantation is currently the only proven treatment with specific effect on cirrhotic cardiomyopathy.”
“Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying

previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral Selleckchem Fedratinib compression fractures A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in Ion Channel Ligand Library molecular weight order to identify aforementioned causes Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations Bone

specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1, pancreatic cancer, 1, colon Veliparib manufacturer cancer, 1, breast cancer, 2, multiple myeloma, 3, leukemia, 1, and lung cancer, 2) In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology”
“Background: Physical disability and psychologic morbidity are frequent and important complications of severe trauma injury with serious consequences for long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Little prospective data exist, however, in a global trauma population on the risk factors for poor HRQOL.

[DOI: 10.1063/1.3204941]“
“The authors investigated preatten

[DOI: 10.1063/1.3204941]“
“The authors investigated preattentive filtering assessed by P50 gating in nine participants with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and seven with adult-onset antisocial behavior (AAB). Relative to 15 comparison

subjects, gating was impaired in ASPD, suggesting abnormal preattentive filtering in pathological impulsivity. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2009; 21: 328-331)”
“Immune characteristics in 65 calves were evaluated in response to a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) provided in electrolyte scour treatment. Blood samples were analyzed for cell surface markers and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration. AGP increased in scouring calves given electrolyte containing Bacillus at day 7 post-placement FK228 compared to scouring calves administered electrolyte alone and non-scouring calves, enhancing the inflammatory response for pathogen clearance. The Bacillus promotes T cell subsets including greater proportions of activated, mature cells (CD8(-)CD25(+), CD8(-)CD45RO(+), CD8(-)TCR1(+)) in calves given electrolyte containing Bacillus than scouring calves administered electrolyte alone and non-scouring calves: Also, the Bacillus may be alleviating Selleckchem LDC000067 inflammation at day 3 post-placement as the proportion of monocytes and granulocytes lacking L-selectin (CD172a(+)CD62L(-)) was greater in scouring calves given electrolyte compared to

the other groups. Electrolyte containing Bacillus administered at the onset of scours influences components of innate and adaptive immune development check details during and following the scouring event. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this paper, a plasmonic “”ac Wheatstone bridge”" circuit is proposed and theoretically modeled for the first time. The bridge circuit consists of three metallic nanoparticles, shaped as rectangular prisms, with two nanoparticles acting as parallel arms of a resonant circuit and the third-bridging nanoparticle acting as an optical antenna providing an output signal. Polarized light excites

localized surface plasmon resonances in the two arms of the circuit, which generate an optical signal dependent on the phase-sensitive excitations of surface plasmons in the antenna. The circuit is analyzed using a plasmonic coupling theory and numerical simulations. The analyses show that the plasmonic circuit is sensitive to phase shifts between the arms of the bridge and has the potential to detect the presence of single molecules. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3195071]“
“The authors describe the reactivation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in three patients with lesions in the prefronto-subcortical circuits after decades of being asymptomatic. The patients also reported the emergence of new OCD symptoms and motor/phonic tics as well as mental rituals thematically related to the negative experience of suffering cognitive and motor deficits.

211 +/- 0.153 for the placebo, 3-mg OTO-104, and 12-mg OTO-104 gr

211 +/- 0.153 for the placebo, 3-mg OTO-104, and 12-mg OTO-104 groups, respectively; corresponding to 42%, 56% and 73% reductions in vertigo frequency, respectively. Similar results were observed for tinnitus, measured by the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-25).

Conclusion: OTO-104 was safe and well tolerated. Although the sample size was small, the data suggest 12 mg of OTO-104 was associated with a clinically meaningful reduction in vertigo frequency compared to placebo 3 months after treatment.”
“Background: The overall analysis of the rivaroxaban versus warfarin in Japanese patients with

atrial fibrillation (J-ROCKET AF) trial revealed that rivaroxaban was not inferior to warfarin with respect to the primary safety outcome. In addition, there was a strong trend for a reduction in the rate of stroke/systemic embolism with rivaroxaban compared

with warfarin. Combretastatin A4 Methods: In this subanalysis of the J-ROCKET AF trial, we investigated the consistency of safety and efficacy profile of rivaroxaban versus warfarin among the subgroups of patients with previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or non-central nervous system systemic embolism (secondary prevention group) and those without (primary prevention group). Results: Patients in the secondary prevention group were 63.6% of the overall population of J-ROCKET AF. In the secondary prevention group, the rate of the principal safety outcome (% per year) was 17.02 in rivaroxaban-treated Navitoclax purchase patients and 18.26 in warfarintreated patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.29), while the rate of the primary efficacy endpoint was 1.66 in rivaroxaban-treated patients and 3.25 in warfarin-treated patients (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.23-1.14). There were no significant

interactions in the principal safety and the primary efficacy endpoints of rivaroxaban compared to warfarin between the primary and secondary prevention groups (P = .090 and .776 for both interactions, respectively). Conclusions: The safety and efficacy profile of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin was consistent among patients in the primary prevention group and those in the secondary prevention group.”
“OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the incidence of and the main risk factors associated with cutaneous adverse events in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis following anti-TNF-alpha therapy.

METHODS: 3-MA clinical trial A total of 257 patients with active arthritis who were taking TNF-a blockers, including 158 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 87 with ankylosing spondylitis and 12 with psoriatic arthritis, were enrolled in a 5year prospective analysis. Patients with overlapping or other rheumatic diseases were excluded. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data were evaluated, including the Disease Activity Score-28, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Skin conditions were evaluated by two dermatology experts, and in doubtful cases, skin lesion biopsies were performed.

Retaining study participants from this mobile population can be c

Retaining study participants from this mobile population can be challenging and may warrant additional support.”
“Case Description-An 8-month-old spayed female domestic ferret (Mustela putodus furo) was referred for examination to determine the cause of lethargy and severe anemia.

Clinical Findings-Initial examination revealed that the ferret was lethargic but with appropriate mentation. The only other abnormal findings were severe pallor of the mucous membranes, nasal plenum, and skin and a PCV of 8%. Pure red

cell aplasia (PRCA) was diagnosed on the basis of cytologic evaluation of a bone marrow biopsy specimen.

Treatment and Outcome-Medical treatment included blood transfusions, Fludarabine in vitro IM administration selleck of iron dextran, oral administration of antimicrobials and gastrointestinal tract protectants, and SC administration of erythropoietin. Once PRCA was diagnosed, the ferret was orally administered prednisone, cyclosporine, and azathioprine. Nine months after onset of treatment, the PRCA was in remission and the ferret was doing well. Immunosuppressive

treatment was discontinued at 14 months after onset of treatment, and 36 months after initial examination, the ferret appeared to be healthy.

Clinical Relevance-It is important that PRCA be considered as a differential diagnosis for a ferret with severe anemia. Prolonged immunosuppressive treatment was successful in the ferret described here. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:695-700)”
“OBJECTIVE: To assess the robustness of socio-economic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) prevalence find more surveys.

DESIGN: Data were drawn from the TB prevalence survey conducted

in Lusaka Province, Zambia, in 2005-2006. We compared TB socio-economic inequalities measured through an asset-based index (Index 0) using principal component analysis (PCA) with those observed using three alternative indices: Index 1 and Index 2 accounted respectively for the biases resulting from the inclusion of urban assets and food-related variables in Index 0. Index 3 was built using regression-based analysis instead of PCA to account for the effect of using a different assets weighting strategy.

RESULTS: Household socio-economic position (SEP) was significantly associated with prevalent TB, regardless of the index used; however, the magnitude of inequalities did vary across indices. A strong association was found for Index 2, suggesting that the exclusion of food-related variables did not reduce the extent of association between SEP and prevalent TB. The weakest association was found for Index 1, indicating that the exclusion of urban assets did not lead to higher extent of TB inequalities.

CONCLUSION: TB socio-economic inequalities seem to be robust to the choice of SEP indicator. The epidemiological meaning of the different extent of TB inequalities is unclear. Further studies are needed to confirm our conclusions.

Design: We used data from a population-based,

Design: We used data from a population-based, buy HSP990 prospective study of 64,191 women who were free of T2D or other chronic diseases at study recruitment and were living in urban Shanghai, China. Dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were assessed through in-person interviews. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association of the exposures under study with the risk of T2D.

Results: An inverse association between calcium and magnesium intakes and T2D risk was observed. The relative risks for the lowest to the highest quintiles

of calcium intake were 1.00, 0.82, 0.73, 0.67, and 0.74 (P for trend < 0.001), and for magnesium they were 1.00, 0.84, 0.84, 0.79, and 0.86 (P for trend, 0.001). Milk intake was also this website inversely associated with the risk of T2D.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that calcium and magnesium intakes may protect against the development of T2D in this population. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89:1059-67.”
“Crosslinked isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was prepared by reactive blending using dicumyl peroxide and active Sulfur. The modified material was characterized by means of several techniques: dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C solid state NMR). Analysis of results using

the above techniques confirms that, during the crosslinking process, new ethylenic chains are generated at expenses of the initially present iPP. Furthermore, a balance between the amount of missing iPP and the proportion of newly created polyethylene (PE) is observed. The newly formed PE is semicrystalline,

having a degree of crystallinity of about 30%. The amorphous component of the generated PE is thought to contribute to the high impact strength of the crosslinked samples when compared to the unmodified iPP. In light of the results obtained by the different techniques, an attempt to describe the emerging structure of the new crosslinked iPP material is proposed. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 394-403, 2010″
“Study Design. Case-control study.

Objective. To determine whether serum metal ion levels and erythrocyte chromium CDK inhibitor levels in adolescents with stainless steel spinal instrumentation are elevated when compared with 2 control groups.

Summary of Background Data. Instrumented spinal arthrodesis is a common procedure to correct scoliosis. The long-term consequences of retained implants are unclear. Possible toxic effects related to raised metal ion levels have been reported in the literature.

Methods. Thirty patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis with stainless steel instrumentation for scoliosis (group 1) were included. Minimum postoperative duration was 3 years. Serum chromium, molybdenum, iron, and ferritin levels were measured.