Thus, suckling bout duration in captive animals does not necessar

Thus, suckling bout duration in captive animals does not necessarily reflect evolutionary adaptation to an arid environment. Although suckling bout duration and frequency is not a good indicator of milk transfer (Cameron, 1998; Cameron et al., 1999), it can be useful to assess the amount of maternal care in current offspring (Mendl & Paul, 1989; Cassinello, 2001; Therrien et al., 2007; Pluháček et al., 2010a) and specifically the needs of the offspring (e.g. suckling frequency in Therrien et al., 2007). Our results suggested that suckling bout duration increased with intraspecific aggression rate among adult females of the

species (i.e. longest duration recorded in mountain zebras, followed by plains zebras and Grévy’s Erlotinib zebras). A similar effect of relationships among adults, including aggression among female adults on maternal style, was recorded in interspecific comparisons of several macaque species (Kaufman & Rosenblum,

1969; Thierry, 1985; Maestripieri, 1994a,b). This has been given as a possible explanation for high-suckling frequency in studies on white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus and fallow deer (Lavigueur & Barrette, 1992; Therrien et al., 2007). In primates suckling duration is correlated with stress reduction (Gomendio, 1990; Clutton-Brock, 1991; Redondo, Gomendio & Medina, 1992), and in cattle with socialization with the dam (Das Selleckchem Adriamycin learn more et al., 2000). Therefore, suckling bout duration and the time spent suckling can reflect the social needs of the foal, whereas termination and rejection seems to be affected by ecological adaptation. Because our results came from captive animals living in limited space,

the high aggression rate among mares could strengthen the social demands of the foal to the mother, in mountain zebras in particular. The artificial setting may also have affected the results likely by two factors: smaller space than in the wild and high-quality diet of predictable delivery. Our results dealing with suckling bout duration and frequency are a little different from those of Becker & Ginsberg (1990). In both studies the lowest suckling frequency and time spent suckling was observed in Grévy’s zebras. However, contrasting with the results of Becker & Ginsberg (1990) we recorded longer suckling bout duration in plains than in Grévy’s zebras. In our earlier study on captive plains zebras, we found that suckling bout duration was highly affected by the animal terminating the bout and by the pregnancy status of the nursing mare (Pluháček et al., 2010a); in this study we excluded pregnant mares and did separate analyses depending on the animal terminating the bout. These factors could have affected the results of Becker & Ginsberg (1990). Nevertheless, we cannot omit the effect of captivity as an explanation for the difference in suckling bout duration between our and their studies.

Methods: Animal ethics committee approval was obtained A single

Methods: Animal ethics committee approval was obtained. A single operator with extensive porcine and human EMR

experience performed oesophageal single-band mucosectomy (Cook MBL-6) on adult buy Fostamatinib pigs. Resections were randomized in a balanced fashion to MCC (ERBE VIO 300D EndoCutQ) or LPFC (ERBE 100C 25W). Clear fluid and low residue diet was instituted 24 and 48 hours post MBM, respectively. Feeding and mobility behaviour was recorded daily. Necropsy was performed 72 hours post MBM. Two expert histopathologists blinded to the ESC technique evaluated the depth of tissue involvement in relation to: ulceration, necrosis, acute inflammation (presence of neutrophils), chronic inflammation (lymphocytes and plasma cells) click here and fibroblastic reaction. Results: 156 tissue sections and 45 resection defects in 12 pigs were analyzed (24 LPFC, 21 MCC). All pigs survived to necropsy and tolerated an upgraded diet. The histopathological correlates corrected for submucosal thickness are shown in Table 1. Conclusions: In an experimental porcine model of a single band oesophageal mucosectomy the severity of deep mural injury as evidenced by ulceration and necrosis

of the muscle layer was significantly greater with LPFC than MCC. This suggests that LPFC use is more likely to result in stricture development than MCC. If both modalities offer equivalent efficacy and procedural safety for MBM of oesophageal neoplastic tissue, MCC would be preferable due to decreased depth and severity of tissue injury. Table 1: Histopathological correlates of MCC and LPFC.   MCC (n = 21) LPFC (n = 24) P value Resection defect surface area (mm2) 222 256 0.4 Ulceration involving muscularis 1/21 (4.8%) 9/24 (37.5%) 0.04 Necrosis involving muscularis 1/21 (4.8%) 13/24 (54.2%) 0.001 Acute inflammation involving muscularis & adventitia 19/24 (79.2%) 24/24 (100%) 0.16 Fibroblastic reaction involving muscularis and adventitia 4/21 (19.0%) 4/24 (16.7%) 0.6 Muscularis propria injury / microscopic selleckchem perforation 0/21 (0%) 1/24 (4.2%) 0.8 FF BAHIN,1,5 M JAYANNA,1 LF HOURIGAN,2 RV

LORD,3 DC WHITEMAN,4 SJ WILLIAMS,1 EY LEE,1 M SONG,1 R SONSON,1 MJ BOURKE1,5 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW, 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, 3Department of Surgery, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, 4Queensland Institute of Medical Research Berghofer, Brisbane, QLD, 5University of Sydney, NSW Background: Complete endoscopic resection (CER) of Barrett’s esophagus (BO) with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EOA) is a precise staging tool, detects covert synchronous disease, and may produce a sustained treatment response. There is limited data on long-term outcomes in regards to dysplasia eradication and tolerability of CER.

From 1992 to 2008, the incidence rate of histologically unconfirm

From 1992 to 2008, the incidence rate of histologically unconfirmed HCC increased 2.5 times more rapidly than the incidence rate of confirmed HCC (Fig. 1). The APC in incidence rates for these two groups Saracatinib research buy were 7.9 and 3.2, respectively (both statistically significant: P < 0.05). Between 1992 and 2008, incidence rates of localized stage HCC increased

nearly twice as rapidly as rates of regional and distant stage HCC combined (Fig. 2) and surpassed regional and distant stage incidence rates during 2006-2008. The APC in incidence rates for the two groups were 8.1 and 4.2, respectively (both statistically significant: P < 0.05, as were APCs for regional and distant stage alone, data not shown). The APC for unstaged HCC was −2.6 (P < 0.05). Incidence rates of reported invasive liver surgery or ablation (Fig. 3) increased significantly from 1992 to 2008 (APC = 10.7; P < 0.05). Incidence rates of HCC receiving no surgical intervention also increased significantly from 1992 to 2008 (APC = 7.2; P < 0.05). During 1998-2008, most HCC cases with reported first-course surgery or ablation had localized stage HCC (Fig. 4), including cases receiving transplantation (77%), resection (75%), and local tumor destruction (70%). Overall, 41% of cases had localized-stage HCC. One third of cases with no reported surgery or local tumor

destruction had localized-stage HCC. Among HCC cases diagnosed during 1998-2007 and followed for vital status through 2008, transplant recipients experienced 84% 5-year survival (Fig. 5). Cases with Nutlin-3a mw local tumors less than 3 cm that received RFA had 5-year survival of 53%, whereas cases undergoing liver resection had 5-year survival of 47%. Among cases with reported local tumor destruction, 5-year survival was 35%. Compared to the 3% 5-year cause-specific survival in SEER-9 during 1975-1977 (data not shown), overall HCC survival during 1998-2007 was

18%, whereas survival was 8% among cases without reported invasive surgery or local tumor destruction. 5-year survival exceeded 75% among transplant recipients in all non-Hispanic racial and Hispanic ethnic groups with informative data (Fig. 5). Results were suppressed when there were fewer than 16 cases. selleckchem Among cases with reported liver resection, Asians or Pacific Islanders experienced significantly better 5-year survival (52%) than Hispanics (35%) and blacks (33%). American Indian/Alaska Native cases had 63% survival after resection, with wide CIs. 5-year survival after local tumor destruction was significantly higher among Asians or Pacific Islanders (43%) than black (21%) cases. Overall 5-year cause-specific survival among Asians or Pacific Islanders (23%) was significantly better than among white (18%), Hispanic (15%), or black cases (12%). White cases (18%) and American Indian/Alaska Native cases (20%) had significantly better survival than black cases (12%).

ISC is a rare disease, and its exact prevalence is not yet known

ISC is a rare disease, and its exact prevalence is not yet known. According to a previous report,10 a substantial portion (17%) of bile duct resection for presumed hilar CCC was finally proven not to be malignant, and significant lymphoplasmacytic infiltration was also identified histologically in half of those benign strictures. The prevalence of hilar or intrahepatic strictures as biliary manifestations ERK inhibitor of IgG4-related systemic disease in patients with AIP has been reported to be 8–13%11,12 to 46–49%.3,5 In our data, these proximal biliary strictures were observed only in 14% of patients with AIP (16/118). The wide range of prevalence of ISC in reports might be related

to the heterogeneity of the study population, including ethnic differences and undetermined natural courses of the disease, at which time, ISC develops along the clinical course of IgG4-related systemic disease in each individual patient. ISC can be preceded, accompanied, or followed by AIP.13 Among our patients, two patients exhibited a long disease interval gap between ISC and AIP, with ISC preceding AIP by 9 years, and ISC following AIP by 8 years. Concurrent AIP was

observed in one-third of patients with ISC (6/16). It is already well known that IgG4-positive cell infiltration in the bile duct specimen and serum IgG4 elevation are characteristic findings in ISC. Since ISC is a rare disease, however, it might not BMN673 be practical or cost-effective that serological evaluation for serum IgG4 and histological evaluation with IgG4 immunostaining selleck products are routinely

performed in all patients with hilar or intrahepatic biliary strictures. This strategy might be appropriate only when ISC is suspected clinically and radiologically. Our case series revealed several characteristic radiological findings, which were likely to be useful for differential diagnosis between ISC and hilar CCC. First, bile duct wall thickening, especially at the hilum, was prominent, but the luminal surface was smooth, with relatively preserved luminal patency. Thus, it looked like a doughnut (Fig. 2a). A plausible explanation for the smooth luminal surface and preserved luminal patency, despite marked bile duct wall thickening, could be that the bile duct epithelium is relatively intact, while the bile duct wall is thickened by extensive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis.14 In addition, the bile duct wall was a thickened in a concentric pattern in our patients with ISC,12 in contrast to the abrupt and eccentric strictures with a irregular surface in CCC.15 Second, proximal biliary dilatation was relatively mild in ISC, despite the marked bile duct wall thickening, in contrast to the marked proximal dilatation in CCC. Third, multifocal strictures with intervening normal-looking branches were observed in most of our ISC patients, in comparison to a single, localized stricture in CCC.

The blood lipids may affect the incidence of colorectal cancer K

The blood lipids may affect the incidence of colorectal cancer. Key Word(s): 1. colorectal cancer; 2. blood lipid; 3. hyperlipidemia; 4. lipid metabolism; Presenting Author: HUA MAO Additional Authors: WENDAN WENDAN Corresponding Author:

HUA MAO Affiliations: Zhujiang hospital of Southern medical university Objective: Proper differential SCH772984 diagnosis between Crohn’s disease and intestinal tuberculosisremains challenging problem.This study observe collagen fibers characteristics of CD and ITB by applying Masson’s dyeing and SHG/TPEF imaging. Methods: Found out pathology specimens of who diagnosed CD and ITB in our hospital from 2006 to 2012. CD group had 29 cases (25 of endoscopic specimens, 4 of the surgical specimens), ITB group had 14 cases (12 of endoscopic samples, 2 of surgical specimens). Collected 11 cases.of endoscopic specimens as healthy controls. Each specimen cut serial three sections, to do HE, Masson’s dyeing and SHG/TPEF imaging respectively. Use the Image-Pro Plus6.0 to analysis Masson’s dyeing images, calculating the Average optical density

absorbance (AOD), reflecting the expression of collagen fibers. Observed the characteristics of fibers deposition in SHG/TPEF images. Comparison among multiple groups performed Peptide 17 datasheet by a standard one-way analysis of variance,and between groups performed by Dunnett’s T3 multiple. Results: Among CD, ITB and healthy controls groups, the collagen

fibers expression in ITB was highest (AOD = 560.1772 ± 230.6484). Collagen fibers was higher in CD or ITB than healthy controls, P < 0.05. After eliminating surgical selleck screening library specimens, collagen expression was higher in ITB than CD, P < 0.05. In endoscopic biopsy specimens, collagen expression was higher with granuloma (430.2869 ± 187.6046) than without granuloma (273.6598 ± 243.2126), P < 0.05; SHG/TPEF imaging: in surgical specimens of CD and ITB, there were a large number of collagen fibers deposition in the submucosa, and collagen fibers in CD looked like clumps and curling, without obvious regularity, and in ITB rang aroud the caseating granuloma. Collagen fibers could be found scattering around the glands in endoscopic biopsy specimens. Conclusion: It’s valuable to evaluate fibrosis of crohn’s disease and intestinal tuberculosis by Masson’s dyeing and SHG/TPEF imaging and it could be a new way to identify them. Key Word(s): 1. CD; 2. ITB; 3. Collagen fiber; Presenting Author: SURESH SITHAMBARAM SURESH Additional Authors: IDA HILMI IDA, APRIL ROSLAINI APRIL, KHEAN LEE GOH GOH Corresponding Author: SURESH SITHAMBARAM SURESH Affiliations: faculty of medicine,UMMC Objective: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a fast rising cancer in the Asia-Pacific region. Many methods have been used to screen for CRC. These includes faecal occult blood test (FOBT), faecal DNA testing & colonoscopy.

The resin cement was mixed with an auto-mixing tip and loaded dir

The resin cement was mixed with an auto-mixing tip and loaded directly onto the dowels. The dowels were inserted into the prepared canals with a slightly rotating action and finger pressure. Excess cement was removed, and the remainder was sealed with glycerin gel (Liquid Strip, Ivoclar Vivadent) to inhibit oxygen contact. After cementation, the gutta-percha was removed. Microleakage measurements were made 24 hours after cementation.

A modified fluid filtration method was used for the measurements.[14] The sealing ability of the cemented dowels was determined by following the movement of an air bubble progressing within a micropipette 25 μl in volume and 65 mm in length. All tubes, the pipette, and the microsyringe of the test system were filled with distilled water at room temperature, this website under a pressure of 211 cm H2O (20,692 Pa). The test system was attached to the specimens using an 18-gauge needle and a plastic

cone as an adapter. Measurements of fluid movement were made four times, at 2-minute intervals for 8 minutes, and then averaged. The average movement results were used to calculate the volume of the leaking fluid (average movement × fluid volume per mm [25 μl/65 mm]). Then values were expressed as “μl/ H2O” (hydraulic conductance = Lp).[14] The fluid flow rate through the 18-gauge needle and unfilled tooth canals, which were prepared for dowel placement, was measured for each dowel system individually by weighing the amount of water that could pass through the root canal in 1 minute. These values served both as a positive control and as 100% leakage, to which measurements of cemented groups could be compared (as a percentage).[14] Initially, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test was performed to analyze the homogeneity of the variances over the data, and it was seen that the data were normally distributed (p > 0.05).[15] Later, a one-way ANOVA test was performed, and Tukey HSD, as a post hoc test, was used to identify the significant differences among the groups. The data were selleck chemicals llc finally post hoc analyzed with PASS (power analysis

and sample size) test (NCSS/PASS 2007, NCSS LLC.; Kaysville, UT) at a confidence level of 95%. The SSP group had the highest relative microleakage average (7.06 × 10−4%), and the CSG group had the lowest relative microleakage average (3.55 × 10−4%). One-way ANOVA test showed significant differences among the results of the groups (p < 0.05). Further post hoc Tukey HSD analysis showed no significant differences among the CSG, TAG, LEQ, USZ, HEG, and SOG groups (p > 0.05); however, the relative microleakage results of CSG and TAG groups were significantly lower than the results of STG and TZG groups (p < 0.05). The relative microleakage of the SSP group was significantly higher than all the FRC dowel groups, with the exception of the STG and TZG groups (p < 0.05) (Table 2).

In contrast, the IL28B minor type patients who have poor

In contrast, the IL28B minor type patients who have poor

responses to IFN may be more promising candidates. The true clinical influence of Y93H on treatment responses remain unknown and further elucidation is mandatory after the approval of daclatasvir for clinical use. In particular, it is important to clarify the cut-off values as to the mixture ratio of Y93H to Y93 wild type in establishing clinical resistance, if the presence of viruses with Y93H before treatment really does affect the response. If so, it is also important to clarify whether the proportion of Y93H variants changes during the clinical course (the natural course or during therapy including IFN) in order to determine the most appropriate timing for introducing daclatasvir. However, it is possible for Y93H check details variants to disappear after IFN treatment considering that Y93H variants may be sensitive to IFN. The mechanism of the

relationship between the IL28B SNP and Y93H also is not clear at present. Considering that wild-type NS5A is known to be associated in its ISDR region with IFN resistance and with the IL28B minor SNP (TG/GG),[28] it is possible that wild-type NS5A Y93 also is associated with IFN resistance and with IL28B minor SNP, although further elucidation is necessary. We acknowledge that the PCR technique has a risk of producing biased amplicons according to the PCR primer sequences and therefore we designed

novel primers in this study by searching for the most conserved sequence regions around NS5A. We speculate that the sequence bias might have been avoided at least to some extent considering the fact that the NS5A mutation rate in this study was quite compatible with that of a previous study and that obtained from the public database. In conclusion, we detected by deep sequencing the substantial presence of resistance mutations to daclatasvir, Y93H in particular, find more in daclatasvir treatment-naïve patients and these were not detectable by direct sequencing. We also showed that IL28B major type patients who have favorable responses to IFN may have a higher risk of being infected with Y93H HCV than IL28B minor type patients, suggesting that those patients may have a higher risk of developing daclatasvir resistance, although further studies are needed. ”
“Tumor necrosis factor α–converting enzyme (TACE, also known as ADAM17) was recently involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We observed that TACE activity was significantly higher in livers of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 1 month, and this activity was increased in liver > white adipose tissue > muscle after 5 months compared with chow control.

7 Several studies, including those by Jiao et al, using a rabbit

7 Several studies, including those by Jiao et al., using a rabbit fibrosis model,19 and by Cardoso et al., using isolated perfused cirrhotic rat and human livers,20 have demonstrated that an increase in portal venous blood flow produced by mechanically pumping not only increases portal inflow pressure, but also decreases intrahepatic portal resistance (IHPR)

and dilates sinusoidal spaces in cirrhotic liver, changes that resulted in improving liver function. In liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension is characterized by increased intrahepatic vascular resistance Ponatinib price and elevated splanchnic blood flow. Hepatic stellate cells play a crucial role in regulating sinusoidal vascular tone by their contraction. In turn, such contractility is regulated by a counterbalance between vasoactive agents, such as endothelin-1, and vasorelaxing agents, such as nitric oxide (NO). Recent studies have shown that NO production in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells is decreased in the cirrhotic

liver, leading to increased intrahepatic resistance.21,22 Generally, the increased shear stress induced by blood flow augments NO production in the vascular endothelium and mediates vasodilatation.23 This decreased IHPR Selleck Alvelestat might result from sinusoidal dilatation by NO overproduction following the augmented portal selleck inhibitor blood flow.19 One clinical study in 14 cirrhotic patients who underwent B-RTO showed that hepatic blood flow significantly increased 4 weeks after the procedure and was associated with reduced IHPR.18 B-RTO is likely to enhance portal blood flow, and subsequently to reduce IHPR through shear stress-induced vasodilatation, finally leading to improve liver function. Mechanical portal pumping might be a useful therapeutic modality in cirrhotic portal hypertension, but it would be a difficult procedure to apply in the clinical setting. Therefore, we suggest that B-RTO could be a

procedure potentially to enhance portal blood flow with benefits in intrahepatic hemodynamics that are similar to those elicited by mechanical portal pumping. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that patients with an increase in HVPG ≥ 20% showed a significant improvement of liver function 6 months after B-RTO, whereas those with an increase in HVPG < 20% showed no significant change. Shear stress is determined mainly by three factors: vessel radius, flow rate, and viscosity.23 It is calculated from the flow rate, pressure change, and vessel length. If viscosity and vessel length are considered constant in the intrahepatic portal venous system, shear stress in the portal venous system can be estimated as an index calculated from the changes in portal pressure and portal blood flow.

[16] They were treated with these preventive regimens for 1 month

[16] They were treated with these preventive regimens for 1 month, after which they were instructed to use the medications abortively only for the subsequent 2 months, up to 14 days per month. In total, 28 patients were randomized, 16 to the sumatriptan/naproxen treatment, and 12 to the naproxen treatment. Already 8 of the 28 patients (29%) discontinued treatment during the first month of the study, 3 in the sumatriptan/naproxen group (19%), and 7 in the naproxen group (58%), leaving only 15 and 5 patients, respectively, in the groups. Unfortunately, especially considering the extent of the dropouts, the efficacy analysis of the

study was not conducted on the intent-to-treat population but on the completer population, greatly invalidating the results obtained. Although most of the dropouts Navitoclax solubility dmso in naproxen group, that is, 5 of 7, dropped out because of lack of efficacy, the reported results claim selleck products a high degree of efficacy in that group, with a reduction in

migraine headache days per month from 16.4 ± 1.9 (SD) at baseline to 6.2 ± 4.0 in month 1, a highly statistically significant change (P = .0074). The comparable change in the sumatriptan/naproxen group was from 18.9 ± 5.1 days at baseline to 14.4 ± 7.9 days in month 1, a much smaller change that was nevertheless statistically significant (P = .0112). It is difficult to interpret the results, especially when it comes to the efficacy reported for the naproxen group, considering that the analyzed group only consisted of 5 patients and the same number

discontinued treatment because of lack of efficacy. Regarding the sumatriptan/naproxen group, although the change in migraine headache days per month from baseline was statistically significant during the month of daily, preventive use, numerically it was not impressive and amounted to no more than roughly a quarter. It certainly does not suggest that regular preventive use of a triptan in chronic migraine is particularly effective, and the difference with the patients in the studies conducted by Robbins,[7] Robbins and Maides,[6] and Piekos and Spierings[1] is that they were using the triptan daily or almost daily selleck screening library abortively and not preventively. NSAIDs have been shown in randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies to be effective in the preventive treatment of episodic migraine, and the quality of the study reviewed above is not such that this claim can be extended to chronic migraine prevention. In a large, 5-year, longitudinal, population-based study, referred to as the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP), it was found that triptan use in episodic migraine is associated with an increased risk of the development of chronic migraine that increases with days of medication use.

To investigate the basis for this discrepancy, photosynthate util

To investigate the basis for this discrepancy, photosynthate utilization was characterized in Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher grown at three different growth rates in N-limited chemostats. Pb was measured throughout a 2 min to 24 h time course and showed clear growth-rate-dependent differences in lifetimes of newly fixed carbon. 14C pulse-chase experiments revealed

differences in patterns of carbon utilization between growth rates. At high growth rate, the majority of 14C was initially fixed into polysaccharide and lipid, but the relative contribution of each labeled Selleckchem PD98059 biochemical pool to the total label changed over 24 h. In fast-growing cells, labeled polysaccharides decreased 50%, while labeled lipids increased over the first 4 h. At SCH772984 cost low growth rate, 14C was initially

incorporated primarily into protein, but the contribution of labeled protein to the total label increased over the next 24 h. Together, time-resolved measurements of Pb and cellular NAD and NADP content suggest an enhanced role for alternative dissipation pathways at very low growth rate. Findings of this study contribute to an integrated understanding of growth-rate-dependent shifts in metabolic processes from photosynthesis to net growth. ”
“Benthic microalgae (BMA) are important primary producers in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments, serving as a vital selleck compound food resource for heterotrophs. BMA also release extracellular polymeric secretions that inhibit resuspension of sediments. Key ecological parameters such as abundance, productivity, and species composition of BMA each contribute to the character of these roles. Our primary objectives were to (i) assess the importance of biotic disturbance to the structure of sedimentary microalgal communities and (ii) identify principal modes of recolonization. We employed field comparative studies to test whether deposit feeding

by two invertebrates (Leptosynapta tenuis and Balanoglossus aurantiacus) caused removal of BMA, and manipulative experiments to assess rates and mechanisms of recolonization. Both deposit feeders were determined to significantly reduce BMA biomass via ingestion; however, little change in community composition was observed. Recovery of these disturbed patches was followed over the period of intertidal exposure. We distinguished between potential recolonization methods of migration and regrowth by monitoring fecal coils incubated naturally on underlying sediments (regrowth + migration treatment), hydrogen-peroxide-treated coils incubated on ambient sediment (migration only), and coils that were incubated on 0.2 μm filters and thereby isolated from underlying sediment (regrowth only).