“In the present study, we examined the effect of perinatal

“In the present study, we examined the effect of perinatal Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure 3-MA ic50 on the developing rat cerebellum and tested the hypothesis that maternal

infections impact brain structure and function by mechanisms involving increase in oxidative stress and changes in brain type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2)- and thyroid hormone (TH)-responsive genes. Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat dams were challenged with LPS (200 mu g/kg body weight) exposure during pregnancy (G10-G15) and lactation (P5-P10), the time periods corresponding, respectively, to the first/second and the third trimesters of human pregnancy. LPS exposure resulted in a significantly decreased motor learning in SD male (29.8 %) and in female (55.0 %) pups (p < 0.05); changes in rollover and startle response showed only a trend. The LPS challenge also resulted in a trend (p = 0.09) toward increased cerebellar

levels of the oxidative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in SD male (16.2 %) and female (21.2 %) neonates, while 3-NT levels were significantly Ubiquitin inhibitor decreased (p < 0.05) in SHR female pups. D2 activity, responsible for local intra-brain conversion of thyroxine (T4) to the active hormone, 3′,3,5-triiodothyronine (T3), was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in LPS-challenged SHR male (40.3 %) and SD female (47.4 %) pups. Several genes were affected by LPS. Notably,

D2 (DIO2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were significantly elevated in SHR females, while transthyretin (TTR) expression was decreased in both SD males and females (P < 0.05). In vitro chronic exposure of cerebellar cultures to LPS resulted in decreased arborization of Purkinje cells while D2 was only increased transiently. Our data demonstrate that perinatal LPS exposure impacts the developing VX-680 cerebellum in strain- and sex-dependent manner via complex mechanisms that involve changes in oxidative stress, enzymes involved in maintaining local TH homeostasis, and downstream gene expression.”
“This paper proposes a simple scenario to describe the coalescence of sessile droplets. This scenario predicts a power-law growth of the bridge between the droplets. The exponent of this power law depends on the driving mechanism for the spreading of each droplet. To validate this simple idea, the coalescence is simulated numerically and a basic experiment is performed. The fluid dynamics problem is formulated in the lubrication approximation framework and the governing equations are solved in the commercial finite element software COMSOL.

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