To verify this hypothesis, we collected familiarity ratings for normal males and females, for 288 animals, subdivided according to whether they were hunted/fished, or were used as food. The overall familiarity was almost identical between males and females. Males were more familiar with hunted animals, but for them also food animals were more familiar. There was not a consistent Selleck NU7441 effect of hunting/fishing independently of the food/not food classification. The claim that males are generally more proficient with animals knowledge because most hunters/fishers are males seems rather simplistic, and the familiarity
structure of the animals category is more complex. An evolution-based account is suggested for the category by sex interaction.”
“The plasma treatment with O-2/Ar mixture was applied to reduce the surface roughness of the L1(0)-FePt electrode in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions. The surface roughness (R-rms) of the L1(0)-FePt layer was decreased from 1.2 nm at the as-deposited state to 0.52 nm after the plasma treatment with the ratio of O-2 to Ar equal to 0.5. The low click here surface roughness accompanying the formation of an oxide layer led to magnetic decoupling between free and reference layers after the plasma treatment on the surface of FePt layer. The existence of the oxide layer was confirmed by using
transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The interfacial Pt-oxide layer plays a significant role in the magnetic decoupling. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3561141]“
“Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can induce insulin resistance (IR) in a genotype-dependent manner and contributes to steatosis, progression see more of fibrosis and resistance to interferon plus ribavirin therapy. Our understanding of HCV-induced IR has improved considerably over the years,
but certain aspects concerning its evaluation still remain elusive to clinical researchers. One of the most important issues is elucidating the ideal method for assessment of IR in the setting of hepatitis C. The hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp is the gold standard method for determining insulin sensitivity, but is impractical as it is labour intensive and time-consuming. To date, all human studies except for four where IR was evaluated in the HCV setting, an estimation of IR has been used rather than direct measurements of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The most commonly used estimation in the HCV population is the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which is calculated from a single measurement of fasting insulin and glucose. In this article, we review the use and reporting of HOMA in the literature and provide guidance on its appropriate as well as inappropriate use in the hepatitis setting.