In most microfluidic devices, drug effects on small animals (e. g., Caenorhabditis elegans) are quantified by an end-point, dose response curve representing a single parameter (such as worm velocity or stroke frequency). Here, we present a multi-parameter extraction method to characterize modes of paralysis in
C. elegans over an extended time period. A microfluidic device with real-time imaging is used to expose C. elegans to four anthelmintic drugs (i.e., pyrantel, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/CX-6258.html levamisole, tribendimidine, and methyridine). We quantified worm behavior with parameters such as curls per second, types of paralyzation, mode frequency, and number/duration of active/immobilization periods. Each drug was chosen at EC75 where 75% of the worm population is responsive to the drug. At equipotent concentrations, we observed differences in the manner with which worms paralyzed in drug environments. Our study highlights the need for assaying this website drug effects on small animal models with multiple parameters quantified at regular time points over an extended period to adequately capture the resistance and adaptability in chemical environments. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Background: Radial corrective osteotomy is an established but challenging treatment for distal radial malunion. There is ongoing discussion over whether an opening or closing-wedge osteotomy should be employed. The
purpose of the present study was to retrospectively compare the clinical and radiographic results of conventional opening-wedge osteotomy with those of our closing-wedge technique.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated forty-two patients with extra-articular distal radial malunion who were managed with corrective osteotomy and were followed for a minimum of one year. Twenty-two patients were managed with radial opening-wedge osteotomy and interpositional bone graft or bone-graft substitute, and twenty GSK1210151A cost were managed with simultaneous radial closing-wedge and ulnar shortening osteotomy
without bone graft. The selection of the surgical procedure was determined by the surgeon. Each patient was evaluated on the basis of objective radiographic measurements and functional outcomes as determined on the basis of clinical examination, including range of wrist motion, grip strength, pain-rating score, Mayo wrist score, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score.
Results: The mean duration of follow-up was thirty-six months (range, twelve to 101 months) for the opening-wedge cohort and twenty-eight months (range, twelve to eighty-seven months) for the closing-wedge cohort. The two techniques were comparable in terms of complications. Postoperative volar tilt and ulnar variance improved significantly compared with the preoperative status in each cohort (p < 0.05). Restoration of ulnar variance to within defined criteria (-2.5 to 0.