Leptin levels were significantly lower in patients with delirium and correlated negatively with the number of diagnoses and medications, but not with age, gender, body mass index, or hematology and renal test results. Leptin levels may have a role in the pathophysiological
process of delirium and low leptin could be a useful clinical biomarker to establish risk in elderly patients given the association with delirium.”
“Potassium ions (K+) are required for plant growth and development, including cell division and cell elongation/expansion, PFTα molecular weight which are mediated by the K+ transport system. In this study, we investigated the role of K+ in cell division using tobacco BY-2 protoplast cultures. Gene expression analysis revealed induction of the Shaker-like outward K+ channel gene, NTORK1, under cell-division conditions, whereas the inward K+ channel genes NKT1 and NtKC1 were induced under both cell-elongation PF-04929113 and cell-division conditions. Repression of NTORK1 gene expression by expression of its antisense construct repressed cell division but accelerated cell elongation even under conditions promoting cell division. A decrease in the K+ content of cells and cellular osmotic pressure in dividing cells suggested that an increase in cell osmotic pressure by K+ uptake is not required for cell division. In contrast, K+ depletion,
which reduced cell-division activity, decreased cytoplasmic pH as monitored using a fluorescent pH indicator, SNARF-1. Application of K+ or https://www.selleckchem.com/MEK.html the cytoplasmic alkalizing reagent (NH4)(2)SO4 increased cytoplasmic pH and suppressed the reduction in cell-division activity. These results suggest that the K+ taken up into cells is used to regulate cytoplasmic pH during cell division.”
“Purpose: We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy.
Patients and methods: We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected
15 papers with a total of 50 homicides.
Results: We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility.
Conclusion: The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized.