Results confirmed the existence of a group of women who demonstra

Results confirmed the existence of a group of women who demonstrate the mid-cycle pattern of symptom changes (13%), in addition to the classic PMS pattern (61%), and individuals demonstrating no cyclical pattern of symptoms (26%). Moreover, women with a strong PMS pattern showed lower average levels of depression/anxiety than women with no cyclical changes. Tariquidar supplier These findings require that current conceptions of menstrual-cycle related psychological

changes be redefined to include the mid-cycle pattern, and suggest that women with strong PMS symptoms may actually benefit from a mid-cycle sense of wellness. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim to investigate phosphorylated

tau expression and its pathogenic mechanism in eye of Alzheimer’s selleckchem disease (AD) transgenic mice. Levels of tau, phosphorylated tau and other related factors (p35/p25, Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), calpain) were observed by western blot. beta-Amyloid (A beta) plaques and neuron-fibrillary tangles (NFTs) in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were detected by immunohistochemistry. We found that hyper-expression of phosphorylated tau was detected in retina, and only a few or no expressed in optic nerve, cornea and lens of transgenic mice. Increased senile plaques (A beta) and NFTs were observed in transgenic mice accompanying with increased tau phosphorylation. The increased tau phosphorylation was associated with a significant increase in production of p35 and p25, and up-regulation of calpain. In conclusion, phosphorylated tau level was highly expressed in retina of AD transgenic mice. The pathogenic mechanism of AD was triggered by accelerating tau pathology via calpain-mediated tau hyper-phosphorylation in retina of an AD mice model. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

mild cognitive decline associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been suggested to be reversible with improved glycemic control. In order to characterise this cognitive decline and study the effects of improved glycemic control we have studied patients with T2DM (N = 28) and healthy control subjects (N = 21). One group of Org 27569 patients with diabetes (N = 15) were given a 2-month treatment of intensified glycemic control, whereas the other group (N = 13) maintained their regular treatment.

Cognitive function in four different domains, auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) and resting EEG power spectrum were studied in the two groups of patients and in healthy control subjects before and after the 2-month trial period.

There were significant differences at baseline (p < 0.02) between patients with T2DM and controls. Patients had lower scores in two cognitive domains: verbal fluency (p < 0.01) and visuospatial ability (p < 0.03).

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