Results of analysis of clinical materials suggest that the quantity of residual hcDNA is approximately 0.1 ng/dose. In addition, the DNA size analysis we conduct indicate that the median size of residual DNA is 450 bp with 64% of

the hcDNA less than 500 bp in length and no detectable DNA above 1000 bp. Substituting E[U] = 1, and Med0 = 1000 in Eq. (18) and Eq. (19), the safety factors of oncogenicity and infectivity are estimated to be 4.9 × 1010 and 2.2 × 1011, Obeticholic Acid mw which represent worst case scenario of safety factor estimates. In general, using the analytical methods discussed in Section 3.5, variability associated with the estimate of the median size Med0 of residual DNA can be obtained. For example, we could perform the analysis on a large number of samples, to give rise to a set of estimates of median size. The error related to the mean median size of residual DNA can be calculated. Applying Taylor expansion, the error associated with safety factor estimate can be determined. Alternatively, we could use bootstrapping method to estimate the error, based on resampling of samples from the size distribution selleckchem determined by the method in [13]. This will allow us to construct one-sided confidence lower bound for the safety factor, which represents

the worst case scenario. Lastly, the theoretical model is developed in a very general context. It can easily be applied to the evaluation of oncogenic and infective risks of other biological products. The assessment of the intranasal vaccine serves as an illustration to the use of the method. As we have demonstrated, the use of the method is simple and straightforward. For interested parties a written computer code of the method can be obtained by contacting the first author. We thank the

referees for their valuable comments that have helped to improve the manuscript greatly. ”

“Type through 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune process in which T cells invade the pancreatic islet and lead to inappropriate inflammation [1]. The inflammation selectively causes the functional inactivation and ultimately the death of the insulin-producing β cells [2]. Many important factors in the pathogenesis of the autoimmune process have been understood. Inflammation and autoimmunity to autoantigens are part of the progression of the disease [3]. Nevertheless, the fact that type 1 diabetes results from an autoimmune disease tells us that β cell destruction can be stopped by arresting the inflammatory autoimmune process. Several autoantigens identified as targets for diabetogenic T cells in the autoimmune diabetes [3], an Hsp60 peptide contained between aa 437 and 460 named P277 is one of them [4]. The important factor impeding the development of P277 vaccine is its poor immunogenicity.