Analytically testing the accuracy of the product rule for more than five loci has hitherto remained an open problem.\n\nResults: In this article, we adopt a flexible graphical framework to compute multi-locus MPs analytically. We consider two standard models of random mating, namely the Wright-Fisher (WF) and Moran models. We succeed in computing haplotypic MPs for up to 10 loci in the WF model, and up to 13 loci in the Moran model. For a finite population and a large number of loci, we show that the MPs predicted by the product rule are highly sensitive to mutation rates in the range of interest, while the true MPs computed using our graphical framework are not. Furthermore, we show that the WF and Moran models
may produce drastically different MPs for a finite population, and that this difference grows with the number of loci and mutation rates. Although the two models converge to the same coalescent or diffusion limit, in which the LB-100 research buy population size approaches infinity, we demonstrate that, when
multiple loci are considered, the rate of convergence in the Moran model is significantly slower than that in the WF model.”
“Background: In patients with outer retinal degeneration, a differential pupil response to long wavelength (red) versus short wavelength (blue) light stimulation has been previously observed. The goal of this study was to quantify differences in the pupillary re-dilation following exposure to red versus blue light in patients
with outer retinal disease HDAC inhibitor drugs and compare them with patients with optic neuropathy and with healthy subjects.\n\nDesign: Prospective comparative cohort study.\n\nParticipants: Twenty-three patients with outer retinal disease, 13 patients with optic neuropathy and 14 normal subjects.\n\nMethods: Subjects were tested using continuous red and blue light stimulation at three intensities (1, 10 and 100 cd/m(2)) for 13 s per intensity. Pupillary re-dilation dynamics following the brightest intensity was analysed and compared between the three groups.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: The parameters of pupil re-dilation used in this study were: time to recover 90% of baseline size; mean pupil size at early and late phases of re-dilation; and differential re-dilation time for blue versus red light.\n\nResults: Patients with outer retinal disease showed a pupil that tended to stay smaller after light HIF-1�� pathway termination and thus had a longer time to recovery. The differential re-dilation time was significantly greater in patients with outer retinal disease (median = 28.0 s, P < 0.0001) compared with controls and patients with optic neuropathy.\n\nConclusions: A differential response of pupil re-dilation following red versus blue light stimulation is present in patients with outer retinal disease but is not found in normal eyes or among patients with visual loss from optic neuropathy.”
“In his 1910 report on medical education, Flexner emphasized the importance of competency in basic sciences.