Conclusions: The data generated by our system, support our hy

\n\nConclusions: The data generated by our system, support our hypothesis that combined data on PCPE concentration and isoforms may be useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of bone diseases. Further research, on larger cohorts of both normal subjects and patients, must be done. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term effects of interferon (IFN)alpha-2b plus ribavirin combination therapy and to clarify whether

this therapy can reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C.\n\nA total of 403 patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) were enrolled in a multicenter trial. All patients were treated with a JQ1 order combination of IFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin NCT-501 inhibitor therapy.

We examined the incidence of HCC after combination therapy and analyzed the risk factors for liver carcinogenesis.\n\nA sustained virological response (SVR) was achieved by 139 (34%) of the patients. The cumulative rate of incidence of HCC was significantly lower in SVR patients than in non-SVR patients (P = 0.03), while there was no difference in the cumulative incidence of HCC between the transient response (TR) group and the no response (NR) group. Cox’s regression analysis indicated the following risk factors as independently significant in relation to the development of HCC: age being > 60 years (P = 0.006), advanced histological staging (P = 0.033), non-SVR to IFN therapy (P = 0.044). The cumulative incidence rate of HCC was significantly lower in patients who had average serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of < 40 IU/L than in those who showed average serum ALT levels of >= learn more 40 IU/L after the combination therapy (P = 0.021).\n\nThese results suggest that the attainment

of SVR or continuous normalization of ALT levels after IFN therapy can affect patients apart from HCC development.”
“Due to the high sensitivity of the electrical properties of electronic ceramics to various factors, knowledge about the possible influence of the processing procedure on their electrical performance is critical for applying a new technique to the fabrication of the materials. In this study, various electrical parameters, complex impedance spectra, ferroelectric hysteresis loops, and microstructures of soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics formed by the gelcasting technique from suspensions with various dispersants were investigated in comparison with those of the conventional dry pressed ones. We found that the sodium ion, which is the main cation in many commercial surfactants, exhibited obvious hard doping effects; thus causing deteriorated performance of the gelcast PZT ceramics. While a certain impurity ion introduced by a dispersant was also found to induce soft doping characteristics and improve the electrical performance of the materials.

A possible association between cognitive performance and brain at

A possible association between cognitive performance and brain atrophy in ET patients was examined using neuropsychological tests and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). MethodsTwenty-five patients with ET and 25 matched healthy controls were evaluated. ET was diagnosed using the National Institutes of Health collaborative genetic criteria. this website Severity of tremor was assessed using the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin (FTM) tremor rating scale. Subjects

were assessed using a structured neuropsychological battery. Brain images were acquired using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VBM analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. ResultsThe age of the patients was 45.010.7 years and of controls 45.4 +/- 10.7years. Tremor duration was 9.84 +/- 6.63years and total FTM score was 37.34

+/- 17.67. Patients were divided into two groups: ETCI with cognitive impairment (three or more abnormal neuropsychological tests, 1.5 standard deviation criterion) and ETNCI without cognitive impairment. Compared with controls, the ETCI group had significantly impaired performance in neuropsychological tests. One-way analysis of variance was performed between the three groups (ETCI, ETNCI, controls) followed by the two-sample t test. Compared with controls, grey matter volume (GMV) loss was observed in ETCI in the cerebellum (anterior and posterior lobes) selleck inhibitor and medial frontal gyrus. GMV loss was observed in ETCI compared with ETNCI in the medial frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, anterior cingulate and insula. Impairment in neuropsychological tests significantly correlated with GMV of the medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, occipital lobe, lentiform nucleus, insular and cingulate cortices and cerebellum posterior lobe in ETCI. ConclusionsA correlation between neurocognitive deficits in ETCI and GMV was observed suggesting that grey matter atrophy appears to be a correlate of cognitive impairment in ET.”
“Dithiopyr provides PRE and early POST control of smooth crabgrass, but POST efficacy is often inconsistent on tillered plants. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the interaction

Cyclosporin A solubility dmso of temperature and growth stage on dithiopyr efficacy, absorption, translocation, and metabolism in smooth crabgrass. In greenhouse experiments, I-50 (predicted rate to induce 50% injury) measured, smaller than 0.14, 0.14, and 0.15 kg ha(-1) at low temperatures (average 23 C) for multi-leaf, one-tiller, and multi-tiller smooth crabgrass, respectively, while I50 measured, smaller than 0.14, 0.88, and bigger than 2.24 kg ha(-1) at high temperatures (average 32 C), respectively. Multi-tiller (three to five tillers) smooth crabgrass absorbed more root applied C-14-dithiopyr than multi-leaf (three to four leaves) and one-tiller plants, but specific radioactivity (Bq mg(-1)) was two to three times greater in multi-leaf plants compared to tillered plants.

However, deletion of NBCe1-A residues 29-41 unmasks a cryptic GXX

However, deletion of NBCe1-A residues 29-41 unmasks a cryptic GXXXP-containing site homologous with the NBCe1-B low affinity site that is involved in inhibition of NBCe1-A by Cl-in(-). These findings reveal a cellular Cl-in(-) sensing mechanism that plays an important role in the regulation of Na+ and HCO3- transport, with critical implications for the role of Cl-in(-) cellular ion homeostasis and epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion.”
“PURPOSE. To identify factors

associated prospectively with increased cataract surgical rate (CSR) in rural Chinese hospitals. METHODS. Annual cataract surgical output was obtained at baseline and 24 months later from operating room records at 42 rural, county-level hospitals. Total local CSR (cases/million population/y), and proportion of CSR from hospital and local competitors were calculated from government records. Hospital administrators completed see more questionnaires providing demographic and professional information, and annual clinic and outreach screening volume. Independent cataract surgeons provided clinical information and videotapes of cases for grading by two masked experts using the Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric (OSCAR). Uncorrected vision was recorded for 10 consecutive cataract cases at each facility, and 10 randomly-identified patients completed hospital satisfaction BEZ235 ic50 questionnaires. Total

value of international nongovernmental development organization (INGDO) investment in the previous three years and demographic information on hospital catchment areas were obtained. Main outcome was 2-year percentage change in hospital CSR. RESULTS. Among the 42 hospitals (median catchment population 530,000, median hospital CSR 643), 78.6% (33/42) were receiving Metabolism inhibitor INGDO support. Median change in hospital CSR (interquartile range) was 33.3% (-6.25%, 72.3%). Predictors of greater increase in CSR included higher INGDO investment (P = 0.02, simple model), reducing patient dissatisfaction (P = 0.03, simple model),

and more outreach patient screening (P = 0.002, simple and multiple model). CONCLUSIONS. Outreach cataract screening was the strongest predictor of increased surgical output. Government and INGDO investment in screening may be most likely to enhance output of county hospitals, a major goal of China’s Blindness Prevention Plan.”
“Objectives -\n\nTo determine the response rate of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) to lamotrigine (LTG) and identify predictive factors for treatment response.\n\nMaterial and methods -\n\nMedical records of 62 patients with JME were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and EEG parameters. We determined clinical response to LTG and compared LTG responders with non-responders.\n\nResults -\n\nThere were 35 LTG responders (56%) and 27 non-responders (44%). JME patients without generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) responded better to LTG (P = 0.04). Valproic acid (VPA) failure because of adverse events rather than lack of efficacy (P = 0.

“Accurate prediction of protein-DNA complexes could provid

“Accurate prediction of protein-DNA complexes could provide an important

stepping stone towards a thorough comprehension of vital intracellular processes. Few attempts were made to tackle this issue, focusing on binding patch prediction, protein function classification and distance constraints-based docking. We introduce ParaDock: a novel ab initio protein-DNA docking algorithm. ParaDock combines short DNA fragments, which have been rigidly docked to the protein based on geometric complementarity, to create bent planar DNA molecules of arbitrary sequence. Our algorithm was tested on the bound and unbound targets of a protein-DNA benchmark comprised of 47 complexes. With neither addressing protein flexibility, nor applying any refinement procedure, CAPRI acceptable solutions were obtained among the 10 top ranked hypotheses in 83% of the bound find more complexes, and 70% of the unbound. Without requiring prior knowledge of DNA length and sequence, and within < 2 h per target on a standard 2.0 GHz single processor CPU, ParaDock offers a fast ab initio docking solution.”
“Large-scale (similar to 36,000 atoms) long-time (30 ns each) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the complex of imatinib and 16 common mutants of the ABL tyrosine kinase domain have been performed to study the imatinib resistance mechanisms at the atomic level. MD simulations show that long

time computational simulations could offer insight information that static Sapitinib solubility dmso models, simple homology modeling methods, or short-time Selleck YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 simulations cannot provide for the BCR-ABL imatinib resistance

problem. Three possible types of mutational effects from those mutants are found: the direct effect on the contact interaction with imatinib (e. g. some P-loop mutations), the effect on the conformation of a remote region contacting with imatinib (e. g. T315I), and the effect on interaction between two regions within the BCR-ABL domain (e. g. H396P). Insights of possible imatinib resistance mechanisms, not consistent with current consensus, are revealed from various analyses and our findings suggest that drugs with different binding modes may be necessary to overcome the drug resistance due to T315I and other mutations. The relevant patents are discussed.”
“Flax phloem fibers achieve their length by intrusive-diffusive growth, which requires them to penetrate the extracellular matrix of adjacent cells. Fiber elongation therefore involves extensive remodelling of cell walls and middle lamellae, including modifying the degree and pattern of methylesterification of galacturonic acid (GalA) residues of pectin. Pectin methylesterases (PME) are important enzymes for fiber elongation as they mediate the demethylesterification of GalA in muro, in either a block-wise fashion or in a random fashion. Our objective was to identify PMEs and PMEIs that mediate phloem fiber elongation in flax.

Analyses of partial DNA sequences at these loci show no obvious c

Analyses of partial DNA sequences at these loci show no obvious conservation, indicating that they are unlikely to share a common ancestral origin. This suggests convergent evolution of repeat-rich hemizygous chromosomal regions containing apospory loci in these monocot and eudicot species, which may be required for the function and maintenance of the trait.”
“Transient magnetic fields induce changes in magnetic

resonance (MR) images ranging from small, visually undetectable effects (caused, for instance, by neuronal currents) to more significant ones, such as those created by the gradient fields and eddy currents. Accurately simulating these effects may assist in correcting or optimising MR imaging for many applications (e.g., diffusion imaging, current density imaging, use of magnetic contrast VX-689 mw agents, Galardin ic50 neuronal current imaging, etc.). Here we have extended

an existing MR simulator (POSSUM) with a model for changing magnetic fields at a very high-resolution time-scale. This simulator captures a realistic range of scanner and physiological artifacts by modeling the scanner environment, pulse sequence details and subject properties (e.g., brain geometry and air-tissue boundaries).\n\nThe simulations were validated by using previously published experimental data sets. In the first dataset a transient magnetic field was produced by a single conducting wire with varying current amplitude (between 17 mu A and 765 mu A). The second was identical except that current amplitude was fixed (at 7.8 mA) and current timing varied. A very close match between simulated images and experimental data was observed. In addition, these validation results led to the observation that the current-induced

effects included ringing in the image, which extended away from the conductor, primarily in the phase-encode direction. This effect had previously not been noticed in the noisy, experimentally-acquired images, demonstrating one way in which simulated images can provide potential insight into imaging experiments. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The AZD2014 cost increasing rainfall intensity and cumulative rainfall induced by climate change magnify the flow rate of a river and significantly erode a dyke. Securing the integrity of a dyke to protect the land is an essential topic in disaster prevention and water resource management. A concrete-faced river dyke increases erosion resistance and is usually used along the main river in south Taiwan. However, eroded caves behind the thick concrete face are difficult to detect. This study attempts to develop a new visual-based statistical model to estimate the degree of cavity erosion behind the concrete-faced river dyke. Because removing the in-situ concrete face of the dyke is usually forbidden, a non-destructive ground-penetrating radar (GPR) image is used to confirm the location and the size of the cavity.

(J Endocrinol Invest 33: 48-53, 2010) (c) 2010, Editrice Kurti

(J. Endocrinol. Invest. 33: 48-53, 2010) (c) 2010, Editrice Kurtis”
“Objectives: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a spindle cell tumor with a high local recurrence rate. Wide excision (WE) has been the standard treatment, but ideal margin width is poorly defined and Mohs micrographic

surgery (MMS) has emerged as an alternative procedure. This study examines the use of WE versus MMS for the treatment of primary DFSP at a single institution.\n\nMethods: Retrospective review of 48 primary DFSP cases treated from 1971 to 2006. Patient demographics, tumor features, surgical modality (WE vs. MMS), final pathology, and clinical outcome were evaluated.\n\nResults: Twenty-eight patients underwent WE versus 20 patients for MMS. Median age was 40 years. Median WE margin width was 2 cm. For MMS, the median number SNS-032 research buy of layers required to clear the tumor was 2. Median maximal

defect size was 10 cm for WE versus 9.4 cm for MMS. Advanced closure techniques were required for 18% WE versus 65% MMS (P = 0.001). Median operative time was significantly lower for WE at 77 minutes versus 257 minutes for MMS (P < 0.001). Positive margins were present in 21.4% (6/28) WE versus 0% MMS (P = 0.01). At a median follow-up of 49.9 months for WE and 40.4 months for MMS, local recurrence rates were 3.6% (1/28) and 0%, respectively (P = 1.0).\n\nConclusions: From a surgical standpoint, WE was faster than MMS and resulted in a less complex defect/closure. Although positive margin resection was more common with WE, local control was ultimately similar for the 2 surgical modalities. The choice of WE versus MMS should be based on individualized patients/tumor characteristics and institutional expertise in these modalities.”
“The use of MRI in preoperative staging of breast cancer has escalated

recently. Breast MRI has greater sensitivity than mammography, ultrasound, and clinical examination in cancer detection. Because of its variable specificity, however, there has been concern that increased MRI use will result in increased rates of mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer. BI 2536 mouse We postulated that mastectomy rates are not affected by trends in MRI use. We performed a retrospective analysis of imaging tests ordered by surgeons at our breast center from 2003 to 2007. We also reviewed all breast cancer cases reported to the National Cancer Database from our institution during the same time period and categorized them as having been treated with mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery. From 2003 to 2007, the number of breast MRIs ordered annually by surgeons increased from 68 to 358. The rate of MRI use increased from 4.1 per every 100 patients seen to 5.7 and from 1.6 per every 100 new patients seen to 2.9.

The effect of systematic treatment of P falciparum asymptomatic

The effect of systematic treatment of P. falciparum asymptomatic carriers during three consecutive monthly community screening campaigns on the incidence of symptomatic malaria episodes over a 12-month period was compared with no treatment of asymptomatic carriers.\n\nResults: Sensitivity of HRP-2 test in asymptomatic carriers was higher in campaign 1 (92.4%) when compared to

campaign 2 (84.0%) and campaign 3 (77.8%). The sensitivity of HRP-2 test increased as parasite density increased across all the Barasertib Cell Cycle inhibitor age groups. Highest sensitivity (>= 97.0%) was recorded at parasite densities of 1,000-4,999/mu l, except for children aged 10 to 14 years. The specificity of HRP-2 test was comparable across age groups and highest in campaign 3 (95.9%). The negative predictive values were high across the three campaigns (>= 92.7%) while the positive predictive values ranged from 23.2 to 73.8%. False-positive and false-negative rates were high in campaign 1 and campaign 3, respectively.\n\nConclusion: The performance check details of HRP-2 test in detecting

asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum varied by age and parasite density. Although the use of HRP-2 test is beneficial for the diagnosis of acute malaria, its low sensitivity in screening asymptomatic carriers may limit its utility in pre-elimination interventional settings. The use of a practical and more sensitive test such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification in combination with a cost effective HRP-2 test may be worth exploring in such STAT inhibitor settings.”
“The rising temperatures (> 35A degrees C) are proving detrimental to summer-sown mungbean genotypes that experience inhibition of vegetative and reproductive growth. In the present study, the mungbean plants growing hydroponically at varying temperatures of 30/20A degrees C (control), 35/25, 40/30, and 45/35A degrees C (as day/night

12 h/12 h) with (50 mu M) or without ascorbic acid (ASC) were investigated for effects on growth, membrane damage, chlorophyll loss, leaf water status, components of oxidative stress, and antioxidants. The ASC-treated plants showed significant improvement in germination and seedling growth especially at 40/30 and 45/35A degrees C. The damage to membranes, loss of water, decrease in cellular respiration, and chlorophyll were significantly prevented by ASC treatment to plants growing at these temperatures. The oxidative stress measured as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content was observed to be significantly lower at high temperatures with ASC application. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase increased at 40/30A degrees C but decreased at 45/35A degrees C in the absence of ASC while with its application, the activities of these enzymes were appreciably resorted.

6, p smaller than 0 05) also part of the limbic system These f

6, p smaller than 0.05) also part of the limbic system. These findings support the notion that

limbic involvement is a prominent feature 5-Fluoracil of LOAD but not EOAD. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic gastric inflammation that can progress to cancer. In this process, the virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) plays a central role by directly altering epithelial cell signaling and inducing a strong Th1 immune response, which contributes to carcinogenesis. It is still barely understood how the bacterium evades clearance despite this solid immune response and persists lifelong. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in determining the adaptive immune response toward H. pylori, and high levels of regulatory T cells have been detected infiltrating the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients, which contribute Angiogenesis inhibitor to bacterial persistence. Although murine studies indicate that H. pylori induces tolerization of DCs and impairs DC maturation, the virulence determinants involved are still controversial. Moreover, the signaling cascades engaged in human DC tolerization upon H. pylori infection remain unknown. In the current study, we analyzed the effect of H. pylori infection on human DC maturation and function,

focusing on the virulence factors P505-15 molecular weight implicated and signaling pathways involved. Our results reveal that CagA is crucial for DC tolerization by modulating IL-10 secretion and, in turn, STAT3 phosphorylation, favoring a regulatory T cell immune response. Our findings help to unravel the paradox why CagA-positive strains, although eliciting a stronger inflammatory response, have overcome evolutionary pressure and persisted in their human host.”
“Transcription factors play a crucial role in the development of various tissues. In particular, the transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family are crucial regulators of neurodifferentiation. Previous studies suggested that the bHLH transcription

factor Hand2 is essential for sympathetic nervous system neuron differentiation in vivo, but the molecular mechanisms involved have not been well elucidated. It is important for understanding their mode of action in cellular differentiation to clarify how these bHLH factors regulate distinct transcriptional targets in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. Recent reports on ES cell differentiation suggested that its molecular mechanism mimics that of in vivo neurogenesis. However, the diverse nature of ES cell populations has prevented efficient analysis. To address this issue, we previously established a cell line in P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. Efficient sympathetic nervous system (SNS) neuron differentiation is induced in the cell line.

“Background: Infection with high-risk type human papilloma

“Background: Infection with high-risk type human papilloma viruses (HPVs) is associated with cervical carcinomas and with a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Viral E6 and E7 oncogenes cooperate to achieve cell immortalization by a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. Here, human keratinocytes were immortalized by long-term expression of HPV type 16 E6 or E7 oncoproteins, or both. Proteomic profiling BI 2536 nmr was used to compare expression levels for 741 discrete protein features.\n\nResults: Six replicate measurements were performed for each group using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The median within-group coefficient

of variation was 19-21%. Significance of between-group differences was tested based on Significance Analysis of Microarray and fold change. Expression of 170 (23%) of the protein features changed significantly in immortalized cells compared to primary keratinocytes. Most of these changes were qualitatively similar in cells immortalized by E6, E7, or E6/7 expression, indicating convergence on a common phenotype, but fifteen proteins (similar to 2%) were outliers in this regulatory pattern. Ten demonstrated opposite regulation in E6- and E7-expressing cells, including the

cell cycle regulator p16(INK4a); the carbohydrate binding protein Galectin-7; two differentially migrating forms of the intermediate filament protein Cytokeratin-7; selleck compound HSPAIA (Hsp70-1); and five unidentified proteins. Five others had a pattern of expression that suggested cooperativity between the co-expressed oncoproteins. Two of these were identified as forms of the small heat shock protein HSPB1 (Hsp27).\n\nConclusion: This large-scale analysis provides a framework for understanding the cooperation between E6 and E7 oncoproteins in HPV-driven carcinogenesis.”
“Specific protein interactions are responsible for most biological functions. Distinguishing JQ1 in vitro Functionally Linked Interfaces of Proteins (FLIPs), from Functionally uncorrelated

Contacts (FunCs), is therefore important to characterizing these interactions. To achieve this goal, we have created a database of protein structures called FLIPdb, containing proteins belonging to various functional sub-categories. Here, we use geometric features coupled with Kortemme and Baker’s computational alanine scanning method to calculate the energetic sensitivity of each amino acid at the interface to substitution, identify hotspots, and identify other factors that may contribute towards an interface being FLIP or FunC. Using Principal Component Analysis and K-means clustering on a training set of 160 interfaces, we could distinguish FLIPs from FunCs with an accuracy of 76%. When these methods were applied to two test sets of 18 and 170 interfaces, we achieved similar accuracies of 78% and 80%.

7% mortality and 58 0% functional independence), but following th

7% mortality and 58.0% functional independence), but following the guideline and criteria provided by National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke (NINDS) and SITS (Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke) studies. DZNeP datasheet Nepal needs to evidently introduce intravenous rt-PA in its

clinical setting for treatment of acute ischemic stroke, which has been approved for more than a decade ago in developed countries. Several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors can affect the outcomes of the treatment with intravenous rt-PA. Early modification of factors predicting the risk outcomes can be a beneficial tool to justify the thrombolytic treatment. This article aims to review various factors that can affect the outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.”
“Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is often the only curative option for people with otherwise RG 7112 fatal hematologic malignancies. As the number of allo-HCT procedures continues to increase [1], it is increasingly clear that a major obstacle to success is delayed immune recovery, which puts patients at risk for a wide variety of opportunistic infections [2-8]. Additionally, rapid early lymphocyte recovery may serve as a surrogate predictor of better transplant outcomes. Robust recovery of absolute lymphocyte

counts (ALC) early after transplantation is associated with improved survival following autologous, sibling, unrelated bone marrow, peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood transplantation [9-15]. There is a clear need to develop strategies to accelerate and improve immune reconstitution (IR). Several novel approaches have been successfully tested in preclinical animal models and early human clinical trials. These include pretransplant androgen ablation, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and a p53 inhibitor or post-transplant administration of interleukin (IL)-7, IL-15, growth

hormone, or insulin-like growth factor-1 [16-20].”
“Background: In a majority of sub-Saharan African countries, counseling and provision of emergency contraception (EC) lag behind that of developed countries. As policymakers expand EC programs in the region, an understanding Entinostat mouse of provider knowledge and bias regarding EC is critical.\n\nStudy Design: Using data from recent surveys of Kenyan and Ethiopian health care providers in bivariate analyses and multivariate logit regression models, this study assesses whether variation in provider knowledge and bias regarding EC is associated with variation in EC counseling and provision.\n\nResults: Survey results indicate that 54% and 31% of Kenyan and Ethiopian providers, respectively, display strong EC counseling behavior, while 61% and 55%, respectively, report having ever provided EC. Bivariate and multivariate results show that, in Kenya, increased EC counseling and provision behaviors are associated with higher levels of provider knowledge.