Water use (L day−1) by kangaroos was just 13% that of sheep, and

Water use (L day−1) by kangaroos was just 13% that of sheep, and kangaroos were able to concentrate their urine more effectively than sheep, even though the kangaroos’ diet contained a high amount of high-salt chenopods, providing further support for potentially lower grazing impacts of kangaroos compared with domestic sheep in Australia’s arid rangelands. ”
“Blood parasites are often considered Antiinfection Compound Library cell line as indicators of immunity in birds, and data on parasite prevalence and intensity of infections are essential to reveal information about the condition of both individuals and populations. We prevented parasite

vectors from biting and infecting nestling great tit Parus major by using insect repellent inside nest boxes. We found that in the absence of blood parasites, great tit nestlings had higher concentrations of haemoglobin, and they survived at significantly higher rates through the nestling phase and also during the first weeks of their fledgling period. This is the first demonstration so far of the impact these parasites selleck chemical have on haemoglobin levels of the hosts, which reveals one mechanism of adverse impact by blood parasites. This study shows that the effects of blood parasites can be assessed without using anti-malaria drugs, which can cause additional risk of oxidative stress. ”
“Most studies of

the function of feeding muscles in fish have implanted electromyogram electrodes unilaterally to understand the motor pattern associated with a behavior.

The few studies that have implanted bilaterally have found that paired muscles may be activated asynchronously, often resulting in visible kinematic asymmetry. We investigated modulation of pairwise asynchrony (modulation in the activation patterns of left and right members of a muscle) of feeding muscles during capture and processing of two types of prey in spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias and little skates Leucoraja erinacea (Elasmobranchii). Two asynchrony indices quantified the degree to which muscles in a pair were activated out of phase (lag index, AIlag) and the degree Bacterial neuraminidase to which durations differ (duration index, AIdur). Feeding behaviors for both species were compared according to these indices and total event duration using principal components analysis. Both species modulated pairwise asynchrony according to prey type, exhibiting more asynchronous motor patterns when feeding on more complex prey items (those requiring more processing); however, the motor patterns underlying this asynchrony differed between species. Dogfish process complex prey using head-shaking, which requires alternating activation of contralateral head muscles (i.e. high lag index value). In contrast, little skates process complex prey using a completely unilateral behavior in which prey is moved to one corner of the jaws and jaw muscles are activated on that side only (i.e. high duration index value).

e three detections in six antenna revolutions) to classify a set

e. three detections in six antenna revolutions) to classify a set of detections as a Track. Birds that were near the edge of the antenna pattern or near the sensitivity threshold often produced an erratic pattern of intermittent detections but not a continuous Track (Fig.

1). Such patterns were classified as probable confirmations but no information on speed and heading could be determined. To determine whether a bird was within the radar’s beam pattern we compared its altitude from the PTT tag with that calculated for the radar’s upper and lower pattern boundaries. The PTT tag uses GPS technology to determine altitude, which has an accuracy uncertainty that depends on the number of satellites in view and their locations in the sky. When learn more comparing the PTT altitude with the radar’s Wnt inhibitor altitude value, we used an uncertainty of ±25 m for the PTT altitude value. This is slightly greater than the 18 m listed by the manufacturer (Microwave Telemetry Inc.) for times with maximum satellite coverage and better reflects field conditions. The radar antenna we used produces a circular cross-section beam that is 4° diameter. We calculated the upper and lower edges of the antenna’s coverage based on the

distance of each bird from the radar and allowed for a ±0.5° beam-width uncertainty for the antenna. The radar’s vertical beam width uncertainty is based on several potential causative factors: (1) it was impossible to determine, with the equipment available, whether the antenna was level to within <0.5°; (2) although the calculated beam at 3 dB down is 4° across, the antenna pattern is not a sharp cut-off; (3) imperfections in the antenna could result in a wider beam pattern; (4) the measurement of the antenna’s elevation angle might not be precise enough to be accurate to within <0.5°. One hundred and eighty-two GPS-PTT locations were within the 5 km digitization range of the radar. Two reports were excluded because the radar was not operating when the reports were taken. Of the remaining 180 reports, 13 Thiamet G were from three black vultures and 167 were from two turkey vultures. Of the 180 PTT locations within 5 km of the radar, 70 positions were reported by

the radar software as Tracks (n=48; Fig. 1) or as sporadic detections but not consistent enough for the software to compute a Track (n=22; Fig. 1). Twenty-eight additional locations were computed to be within the radar beam but were not detected by the radar (Fig. 2a). Of the 70 locations confirmed by radar detections, 22 were calculated to be above or below the antenna beam by a mean of 72 m (±11.6 se, range 1–181 m). Almost three-fourths (15 of 22 targets) of those were within 80 m vertically of the calculated coverage of the radar beam. Beyond 4.5 km only two birds were detected by radar, and only intermittently (detections too inconsistent to produce a track). Beyond 4.5 km two additional birds were calculated to be within the beam but were not detected.

Based on the study by Jeng et al, the APASL stopping rule result

Based on the study by Jeng et al., the APASL stopping rule results in approximately 50% relapse within 1 year and also resulted in hepatic decompensation in 1 patient with cirrhosis. Therefore, this study, in our opinion, confirms earlier observations in studies performed with

lamivudine[12, 13] that finite duration of nucleos(t)ide analog treatment is not really feasible in the majority of HBeAg-negative HBV patients, even not with the usage of more-potent antiviral U0126 chemical structure drugs and stringent cessation criteria. At this moment, long-term, if not lifelong, treatment may still be considered for the vast majority of patients. This recommendation definitely applies to patients who have already progressed to liver cirrhosis, because withdrawal hepatitis flares can result in

subsequent liver failure and death.[18] We also think that in future withdrawal studies, patients with cirrhosis should not be included until more data have become available from patients without advanced liver disease. Despite our concerns, the possibility that treatment cessation is feasible in a selected group of patients should drive Belnacasan mw further research in this field. Unfortunately, it is currently unclear what criteria and which markers can be helpful to identify those patients in whom it may be safe to stop antiviral therapy with a low risk of relapse of disease. The usage of quantitative HBsAg levels[19] may help to find these patients who prevent the glass from becoming completely empty. Jurriën G.P. Reijnders, M.D., Ph.D.1 PRKACG
“Aim:  The diagnosis of Wilson disease is based on the results of several clinical and biochemical tests. This study aimed to clarify the clinical features and spectrum of Wilson disease, including severe Wilson disease. Methods:  Between 1985 and 2009, 10 patients with clinical, biochemical or histological evidence of Wilson disease were either diagnosed or had a previously established diagnosis confirmed at Fukuoka University Hospital. Severe Wilson disease was defined by a serum prothrombin time ratio of more than 1.5 or serum prothrombin activity of less than 50%. The 10 Wilson disease patients were divided into two groups, one

containing three non-severe patients and the other containing seven severe patients, and the biochemical features of the patients in these two groups were compared. Results:  The mean age at diagnosis was 21.5 ± 11.7 years (range, 7–39). Decreased serum ceruloplasmin, enhanced 24-h urinary copper excretion, presence of Kayser–Fleischer rings and histological signs of chronic liver damage were confirmed in 100%, 100%, 66.7% and 100% of patients, respectively. Severe Wilson disease patients had higher levels of serum ceruloplasmin and serum copper (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively) than non-severe patients. Conclusion:  In severe Wilson disease patients, the serum ceruloplasmin and serum copper levels were higher than those in non-severe Wilson disease patients.

This was accompanied by an early onset of severe portal hypertens

This was accompanied by an early onset of severe portal hypertension in Mdr2-/- BALB/c (p < 0.001; 11.1 ±0.2 mmHg at age of 8 weeks vs. 7.3 ± 0.1 mmHg in Mdr2-/- FVB). Aggressive fibrosis in Mdr2-/-.BALB/c mice was associated with

a dramatic increase in several pro-fibrogenic transcripts such as procolla-gen α1(I), TGFβ2 and TIMP-1 (2-4 fold above parental strain levels). While the development of liver tumors in Mdr2-/-.FVB starts from 10 months, Mdr2-/- BALB/c developed liver tumors as early as 7 months of age, with a greater tumor burden compared to Mdr2-/-.FVB at age 12 months (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Mdr2-/-.BALB/c mice demonstrate Selleckchem Seliciclib unprecedented degree and rapidity of hepatic fibrosis progression among any reported mouse models. Disease progression in Mdr2-/-.BALB/c is associated with early onset portal hypertension and accelerated primary liver cancer, which is a clinically relevant KU-60019 complication of cirrhosis. This new model will facilitate development ofantifibrotic drugs and mechanisms of study in biliary fibrosis progression. Disclosures: Peter M. Kang – Grant/Research Support: Abbott Labs Yury Popov – Consulting: Gilead Sciences, Inc, Ymir Genomics; Grant/Research Support: Gilead Sciences, Inc The following people have nothing to disclose: Naoki Ikenaga,

Susan B. Liu, Deanna Sverdlov, Qingen Ke Quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) store retinoid in lipid droplets, but lose these droplets as they “activate” in response to liver injury. Whether this is required for full acquisition of the fibrotic program is unclear. We previously showed that liver X receptors (LXRs) are an important determinant for stellate cell activation. We found that

Lxrαβ-/- HSCs are intrinsically pro-inflammatory and have a “super-sized” lipid droplet. The aim of this study was to determine whether LXRs link cholesterol to retinoid storage or metabolism. We hypothesized that Lxrαβ-/-HSCs are primed for activation because of increased retinyl ester storage and derivative retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling. Methods: Stellate cells were purified from wild-type (WT) and Lxrαβ-/- mice (10 per genotype) by sequential in situ perfusion of Pronase/collagenase, AMP deaminase then density gradient ultra-centrifugation. Cells were collected during culture activation (ex vivo, 1, 2, 3, and 5 days) and analyzed by HPLC to quantify retinoid. Transcriptional profiling for each day was separately performed using Affymetrix gene arrays. Gene expression was determined by qPCR. Results: HPLC analysis showed Lxrαβ-/-HSCs store twice as much retinyl ester as WT at baseline. Both genotypes lose their retinoid over 5-7 days in culture, but the kinetics of lipid droplet loss are accelerated in Lxrαβ-/- HSCs, correlating with an earlier induction of fibrotic genes (Col1a1, Acta2). Increased RAR target gene expression in Lxrαβ-/- cells (Rarb, Crabp1) shows that a functional RAR ligand is present.

The recommendations state that patients should be offered screeni

The recommendations state that patients should be offered screening with IGRA if (and only if) they are in one of these groups and would benefit from chemoprophylaxis [BII]. Therefore, the recommendation is to consider screening in HIV-positive patients from: sub-Saharan Africa, if the length of current ART is under 2 years, whatever the current blood CD4 cell count; medium TB incidence3 countries, if the length of current ART is under 2 years and current CD4 count is less than 500 cells/μL; low-incidence countries,

e.g. Caucasians from the UK, if not on ART, or if the length of current ART is less than 6 months and current CD4 count is less than 350 cells/μL. Routine induced sputum analysis in asymptomatic patients with no other evidence of RG-7388 TB is not recommended [8]. Baseline chest radiographs in asymptomatic individuals with no prior tuberculosis history are not routinely indicated, although they may be considered in those at increased risk of TB (e.g. those from a highly endemic group or with a known contact history). Routine baseline chest films should be performed in those with a history of previous chest disease (including Pneumocystis) and may be considered in those at increase risk of TB (e.g. those from a highly endemic group or with a known contact history) and in those who have used intravenous drugs (IV). All patients

with a CD4 T-cell count of less than 200 cells/μL should have Toxoplasma serology (IgG titres) performed. If the test is IgG positive (consistent with previous exposure), then no repeat testing is required. GSK126 in vitro If the test is IgG negative, then the serology should be repeated if the CD4 T-cell count declines to below 100 cells/μL (as this result will be useful in determining the optimal prophylaxis for the patient). If the patient remains seronegative for Toxoplasma then the serology should be repeated annually while the CD4 T-cell count remains below 100 cells/μL. All patients with a CD4 T-cell count of less than 200 cells/μL should have Toxoplasma serology performed. If

Aurora Kinase the test is negative, this should be repeated yearly if the CD4 T-cell count is less than 100 cells/μL (III). There is relatively little information on the interactions between HIV and helminth or other tropical infections, and very scanty data on the sensitivities and specificities of routine assays for these coinfections in the setting of HIV infection [9, 10]. There is some evidence that urogenital schistosomiasis is associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission [9, 11], but there is presently insufficient evidence to assess whether there are any detrimental effects of other tropical infections on HIV infection, and insufficient data on whether routinely de-worming patients has a beneficial effect on HIV viral load, CD4 cell count or clinical progression [12].

92, P < 0001, AA

reference) Features inversely related

92, P < 0.001, AA

reference). Features inversely related to SVR included education beyond high school (RR = 0.64, P = 0.002, less than high school degree reference), body weight (RR = 0.95 per 5 kg increase, P = 0.01), insulin resistance (RR = 0.63, P = 0.003, not insulin-resistant reference), the natural log of HOMA2 (RR = 0.77, P < 0.001), baseline log10 HCV level (RR = 0.77, P < 0.001), and more disease severity as measured by fibrosis (Ishak) score (RR = 0.90, P = 0.02). Additionally, platelet count (RR = 1.25 per 103 cells/mm3 increase, P = 0.01) and amounts of PEG-IFN (RR = 1.41 per 10% increase, P < 0.001) and ribavirin (RR = 1.25 Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor per 10% increase, P < 0.001) taken during the first 24 weeks of therapy were directly related to the rate of SVR. With regard to lipid levels, baseline TG (natural log scale) was inversely related (RR = 0.65, P = 0.002) and LDLc was directly related (RR = 1.05 per 10 mg/dL increase, P = 0.002) to the rate of SVR. Baseline HDLc and TC levels were not significantly associated with SVR. The relationships between the probability of SVR and baseline and changes in TG, LDLc, HDLc, and TC and during 24 weeks of therapy are shown in Supporting

Information Fig. 1. Although the probability of SVR was negatively associated with baseline TG, it was positively related to increases in TG during therapy. On the other hand, the probability of SVR was positively associated with baseline LDLc, but negatively associated with increases in LDLc from baseline during 24 weeks of therapy. Among males, HDLc appeared to be inversely related to SVR rates (Supporting Information Fig. 1C), whereas in Selleckchem PLX4720 females the relationship was opposite (Supporting

Information Fig. 1D). The probability of SVR based on baseline and on-treatment changes in TC levels revealed similar patterns as LDLc. In crude and race-adjusted regression models, the relationships between variables representing the changes in lipid profile measures (both during and after therapy) and the rate of SVR are summarized in Table 3. Adjusting for race, SVR rates were directly and significantly associated with increases in TG (natural log scale; RR = 1.29, P = 0.02) and declines in LDLc (RR = 0.97, P = 0.02, per 5 mg/dL increase) during 24 Aldol condensation weeks of therapy, compared with pretreatment. Posttreatment changes from pretreatment values in both LDLc (RR = 1.04, P = 0.001, per 5 mg/dL increase) and TC (natural log scale; RR = 4.10, P < 0.001) were directly and significantly related to the rate of SVR. The multivariable model reported by Conjeevaram et al.4 based on 400 participants was fit for the 329 participants for whom serum lipid and covariate data were available (Table 4). In model 1, factors significantly associated with SVR included male gender (RR = 0.80, P = 0.049), Ishak fibrosis score (RR = 0.90, P = 0.009), and the amount of PEG-IFN taken during the first 24 weeks (RR = 1.38, P < 0.001 per 10% dose increase).

We thank our colleagues Holly L Hanson and Huiming Hon

f

We thank our colleagues Holly L. Hanson and Huiming Hon

for critical discussions. Additional supporting information may be found in the online version of this article. ”
“Many regulatory pathways are involved in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) to initiate growth, protect liver cells, and sustain functions of the remnant liver. Bile acids (BAs), whose levels rise in the blood early after PH, stimulate both hepatocyte proliferation and protection, in part through their binding to the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). However, the effect of the BA receptor, TGR5 (G-protein-coupled BA receptor 1) after PH remains to be studied. Liver histology, hepatocyte proliferation, BA concentrations (plasma, bile, liver, urine, and feces), bile flow and composition, PF-01367338 and cytokine production were studied in wild-type (WT) and TGR5 KO (knockout) mice before and after PH. BA composition learn more (plasma, bile, liver, urine, and feces) was more hydrophobic in TGR5 KO than in WT mice. After PH, severe hepatocyte necrosis, prolonged cholestasis, exacerbated inflammatory response, and delayed regeneration were observed in TGR5 KO mice. Although hepatocyte adaptive response to post-PH BA overload was similar in WT and TGR5 KO mice, kidney and biliary adaptive responses were strongly impaired in TGR5 KO mice.

Cholestyramine treatment, as well as Kupffer cell depletion, significantly improved the post-PH TGR5 KO mice phenotype. After bile duct ligation or upon a cholic acid–enriched diet, TGR5 KO mice exhibited more severe liver injury than WT as well as impaired BA elimination in urine. Conclusion: TGR5 is crucial for liver protection against BA overload after PH, primarily through the control of bile hydrophobicity and cytokine secretion. In the absence of TGR5, intrahepatic stasis of abnormally hydrophobic bile and excessive inflammation, in association with impaired bile flow adaptation and deficient urinary BA efflux, lead to BA

overload-induced liver injury and delayed PD184352 (CI-1040) regeneration. (Hepatology 2013;58:1451–1460) After a two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH), the rodent liver is restored to its initial mass within a few days, during which time a complex array of proliferative and hepatoprotective signaling cascades operates, involving cytokines, growth factors, and other paracrine and endocrine agonists.[1, 2] One of the first physiological consequences of PH is an immediate increase in blood bile acid (BA) concentration,[3] reported to signal, by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) stimulation, for the need of hepatocyte division and protection.[4] After PH, the remnant liver adapts to this immediate BA overload by down-regulating BA synthesis and uptake through FXR-dependent pathways.

215 cells at a concentration of 20 nM HBV RI were isolated at d

2.15 cells at a concentration of 20 nM. HBV RI were isolated at day 4 after transfection and analyzed by southern blot. As compared to control miR-C, HBV replication was significantly enhanced and quantitative real-time PCR showed 3.5-fold up-regulation of HBV RI by miR-1 transfection (Fig. 1A, lane 3). MiR-146 and miR-214 increased HBV replication slightly, whereas miR-210 decreased HBV replication by about 40%. The liver specific miRNA-122, as well as miR-132,

did not Barasertib supplier have a significant effect on HBV replication (Fig. 1A). In Con 1 cells with HCV subgenomic replicon, miR-122 transfection resulted in an increase of HCV RNA copy number,3 whereas other miRNAs had no significant influence on HCV replication (Supporting Information Fig. 1). To further evaluate these miRNAs effects on HBV replication, miRNAs and a replication competent clone of HBV pSM2 were cotransfected into Huh7 and HepG2 cells. Consistently, the amount of HBV RI was increased about 2.5-fold after miR-1 transfection (Fig. 1B). Other miRNAs tested so for had no significant effect on HBV replication in the cotransfection

system (data not shown). Based on these results, we subsequently focused on miR-1. Next we examined the effect of miR-1 on the Trichostatin A solubility dmso different stages of the HBV life cycle. HepG2.2.15 cells were transfected with miR-1 at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 40 nM. An increased HBV replication was observed at a low concentration of 0.1 nM of miR-1 and up to 5.0-fold at 40 nM (Fig. 2A; Supporting Information Fig. 2A). The up-regulation of HBV replication by miR-1 transfection became recognizable after 2 days, increased with time, and maintained at Interleukin-3 receptor least up to 14 days (Supporting Information Fig. 2B). HBV RNA levels were elevated significantly as determined by real-time RT-PCR (Fig. 2B, upper panel) and northern blot (Fig. 2B, bottom panel). The amount of HBV

progenies released into culture supernatants was also increased in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 2C). The amount of HBsAg in culture supernatants of transfected HepG2.2.15 cells increased in a similar manner after miR-1 transfection. A slight increase of HBeAg could be observed after transfection with 40 nM of miR-1, whereas HBcAg expression in cytoplasm was clearly increased, as shown by western blot (Fig. 2D). Transfection with miR-C had no influence on the levels of HBV RI, RNAs, proteins, and the production of HBV progenies (Fig. 2A-D). These results confirmed that miR-1 effectively enhanced HBV replication, as well as transcription, gene expression, and progeny viral secretion. To investigate molecular mechanisms of miR-1 effect on HBV replication, we first addressed the sequence specificity of the effect of miR-1.

Results: On our database of 16,525

Results: On our database of 16,525 http://www.selleckchem.com/products/PF-2341066.html patients, 629 died, of which 120 (19%) (58 male) were 12 years or older (median 16.5 yrs (range 12-30 yrs)). A primary liver etiology was found in 62% with biliary atresia (17), malignant liver tumours (17), autoimmune liver disease (AILD) (11) and cystic fibrosis (11) as the most common conditions. 17 patients presented with fulminant liver failure requiring urgent listing and LT. Overall 52 patients (43%) underwent LT at a median age of 12.6 yrs (range 0.6-20 yrs), 18 (35%) required re-transplantation (re-LT) and 11 were re-listed (2 after re-LT) (table). Median

time between LT and re-LT was 10.7 yrs (0-20.8 yrs). For 27 LTs performed between 1984-95, the incidence of re-LT was 54% and re-listing for LT 19% compared to 16% and 24% respectively for 25 patients transplanted between 1996-2011. A further 9 patients were listed for primary LT and 2 were assessed but not activated (table). Median

survival following listing was 2.2 mths (range 0.1-17.3 mths). NA was documented in 16 patients (9 male) of which 14 LT patients (27%) and in the following conditions: biliary atresia selleck products (7/17), Wilson disease (4/7), autoimmune liver disease (2/11), FIC disease (2/3) and Crigler Najjar type 1 (1/2). NA was more prevalent in patients who underwent re-LT and who were re-listed (table). Fifty-six patients were recorded to have died in hospital. 77% were admitted to a paediatric or adult liver intensive care unit of which 16 were listed for LT. Eight patients, 2 listed for LT, died unexpectedly at home. Conclusion: NA appears to be an important

factor affecting graft and patient survival in young people with liver disease and is more common in patients who require re-LT or re-listing for LT. Median survival on the waiting list is short with 80% of listed patients Immune system dying in an intensive care setting. Disclosures: Nigel Heaton – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: Novartis, Roche; Speaking and Teaching: Astellas Michael A. Heneghan – Speaking and Teaching: Falk The following people have nothing to disclose: Marianne Samyn, Anil Dhawan Long-term Survival (LTS) prediction after Liver Transplant (LT) is important and significantly contributes to LT listing. The literature describes complications and poor outcome predictors but there is no established model to predict LTS > 20 yrs. Methods: Long-term (>20 years) and short-term survivors (< 1 and < 5 years) were compared. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify variables associated with LTS. Stepwise multivariable models were built using these variables. Variables were organized in categories, each category was assigned a reference value to create a referent risk factor profile. A scoring system was created, 0 points were given to the base category, unhealthier risk factors were assigned positive points. Decision trees (DT) of LTS were created. Results: Of 3424 pts receiving a primary LT from 1984 to 2013, 211 survived > 20 yrs.

Its efficacy and

safety make it an ideal technique for th

Its efficacy and

safety make it an ideal technique for the clinical application. Key Word(s): 1. Ultrasound-guided; 2. PICC; 3. conventional lmethod; 4. nursing; Presenting Author: ZHIJUAN YANG Additional Authors: MEIXIA WANG, XIAORU MA, XIAOYI CHEN, ZHANCHI LIU Corresponding Author: ZHIJUAN YANG Affiliations: Xijing Hosptial Of Digestive Disease Objective: To study the effect of Holistic-based Individual Nursing on the psychological status and treatment compliance of gastric cancer patients for chemotherapy. Methods: 76 cases of gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups. 36 cases in control group Cobimetinib mw were given routine holistic nursing, 40 cases in observation group were given individual nursing on the basis of holistic nursing concept, namely in the biological-psychology-social medicine mode, make “patients” as the center, pay attention to the uniqueness of the individual, plan individualized care programs, and conduct diversified care respectively based on aspects of physiological, psychological, Selleckchem Saracatinib social, cultural, spiritual, etc. by using SCL-90 (symptoms self-evaluation scale), SAS (anxiety self-evaluation scale) and SDS (depression self-evaluation scale), LES (life event scale) and SSRS (social support rating scale) for evaluation. the psychological status and treatment compliance of the two groups

were assessed and compared at the end. Results: SCL – 90, SAS and SDS, LES, SSRS scores of the observation group patients were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05); The physical function, role function, emotional function and social function of patients in observation group were significantly strengthened, and anxiety, depression, nausea and vomiting symptoms were relieved (P < 0.05). patients in oxyclozanide the Observation group were more likely to adhere to the normative and full-course chemotherapy, both the treatment compliance and nursing satisfaction were obviously superior to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Holistic-based Individual Nursing for Gastric Cancer Patients undergoing

Chemotherapy is beneficial for improving their personal satisfaction, psychological status, and treatment compliance, and all together resulted in better medical treatment effects. Key Word(s): 1. Individual nursing; 2. Holistic nursing; 3. chemotherapy; 4. Psychological status; Presenting Author: MEIXIA WANG Additional Authors: LIAOLIAO XIN, LI HE, FENXIA LIU, ZHIJUAN YANG Corresponding Author: MEIXIA WANG Affiliations: Xijing Hospital of Digestive Disease Objective: To observe the common toxicity and side effects for Oxaliplatin based chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients, and to explore the proper nursing for these patients. Methods: 100 cases with colorectal cancer after receiving chemotherapy of FOLFOX (Oxaliplatin + calcium folinate + 5-FU) regimen were followed up.

Cancer related signaling pathway, e.g. Wnt signaling,stat3,NF-KB