“In Japan, genotypes B and C are the predominant genotypes isolated from patients with chronic hepatitis B, while genotype A predominates in patients with acute hepatitis B. Globalization, however, appears to have changed the distribution of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes. Thus, the viral characteristics of HBV genotypes other
than genotypes A, B and C were examined. Screening of genotypes was performed by enzyme immunoassay and/or polymerase chain reaction INVADER ICG-001 order method in 222 patients with HBV. The full-length nucleotide sequences of unusual strains were compared to those in the database, followed by construction of a phylogenetic tree. Unusual HBV strains were isolated from two patients: a 27-year-old Japanese bisexual man with acute
hepatitis B with HIV co-infection and a 52-year-old Japanese man with chronic hepatitis B. The former strain was classified as genotype H, showing an overall identity AUY-922 in vivo of 99.8% to the Thailand strain (EU498228), while the nucleotide sequence of the latter strain showed similarity to the genotype B strains isolated in Malaysia (JQ027316) and Indonesia (JQ429079) between DR2 and DR1 in the X region, with identities of 96.9%. However, this strain was classified as genotype H by full-length sequence analysis, and the sequence between nt2023 and nt2262 showed no similarity to that in any previously reported strains. HBV strains showing recombination between genotype B and H strains were found even in chronic hepatitis patients in Japan. Globalization 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 may yield HBV strains of possible novel genotypes containing novel nucleotide sequences in the precore/core region. ”
“The need for standardized language is increasingly obvious, also within gastrointestinal endoscopy. A systematic
approach to the description of endoscopic findings is vital for the development of a universal language, but systematic also means structured, and structure is inherently a challenge when presented as an alternative to the normal spoken word. The efforts leading to the “Minimal Standard Terminology” (MST) of gastrointestinal endoscopy offer a standardized model for description of endoscopic findings. With a combination of lesion descriptors and descriptor attributes, this system gives guidance to appropriate descriptions of lesions and also has a normative effect on endoscopists in training. The endoscopic report includes a number of items not related to findings per se, but to other aspects of the procedure, formal, technical, and medical. While the MST sought to formulate minimal lists for some of these aspects (e.g. indications), they are not all well suited for the inherent structure of the MST, and many are missing.