Cancerous tumors are formed when the immune system is unable to remove these diseased cells. Once immune cells capable of killing tumors are activated specifically, they can see tumors that were previously invisible to the immune system. When an immune system is working properly, diseased cells are captured and killed. To date, some researchers have unveiled the cancer’ evasion mechanism and recruited immune system to fight cancer.
Dr. Freeman’s lab In the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute develops an extensive body of knowledge regarding inhibitory signals conveyed by tumor cells via the programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligand PD-L1. Interaction between PD-1 receptor and its ligand deactivates CD8 T cells and inhibits their capacity to kill tumor cells and make cytokines that recruit other immune cells.
Researchers in the Cedars-Sinai Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute eradicates solid tumors in laboratory mice using a novel combination of two targeted agents (a mTOR inhibitor and a CD4 antibody). These two synergistic therapies increase the immune system’s “memory” and ability to recognize tumors, ultimately allowing solid tumors to act as their own cancer-fighting vaccine.
Dr. Lee’s team at Roswell Park Cancer Institute explores two receptors (called CD80 and CD86) expressed on the surface of dendritic cells that trigger the cells to make either immune-stimulating factors or immune-suppressive factors. They defined the intracellular pathways by which the receptors triggered each response.
Fight against cancer
Deep insight into evasion mechanisms of solid tumors contributes to employing new therapeutic strategy to fight cancer. Actually, immune system is harnessed to specifically target tumour cells owing to tumour-specific immunological memory.
Åsa Lindgren, a researcher from the Department of Microbiology and Immunology ,finds that Activation of the NK cells can play a key role in stopping tumors from developing, and that reduced NK-cell activity can increase the risk of cancer developing. These findings are hoped to develop new ways of diagnosing and treating stomach cancer.
Researchers at the University of Calgary’s Hotchkiss Brain Institute (HBI) make a great discovery that amphotericin B (AmpB) as a drug is able to re-activate those immune cells and reduce brain tumor growth, thereby increasing the lifespan of mice two to three times.
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Novel Regulation of CD80/CD86-induced Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling by NOTCH1 Protein in Interleukin-6 and Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Production by Dendritic Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2014; 289 (11): 7747