“In this research, a novel polymer cholesterol-poly(ethyle

“In this research, a novel polymer cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000-glycyrrhetinic acid (Chol-PEG-GA) was synthesized with four steps of chemical modification and elucidated by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectra. To demonstrate the application of this Chol-PEG-GA in preparation of liposomes (CPGL), conventional liposome (CL) composed of PC and Chol was prepared and the effects of the quantity of Chol-PEG-GA on the find more physicochemical properties (entrapment efficiency, particle size, stability of storage, and so on) of CPGL were also evaluated. The ability of the sustained release and the liver targeting ability of CPGL were further studied in vivo in rats and mice. The


show that, the AUC and MRT of CPGL were increased 2.31 and 2.11 times when compared with CL, respectively. The CPGL delivered about seven times higher drug into liver as compared with CL. From the targeting Selleck Autophagy Compound Library parameters of CPGL and CL, we can also conclude that the CPGL is able to improve the liver targeting of brucine. All these results suggested that, the Chol-PEG-GA modified liposomes were potential as the sustained and liver targeting drug delivery. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011″
“Study Design. Retrospective study.

Objective. This study addressed in patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), the role of congenitally fused cervical patterns, risk factors, and cervical symptoms associated with cervical scoliosis.

Summary of Background Data. KFS is an uncommon condition, characterized as improper segmentation of one or more cervical spine segments with LY2835219 in vivo or without associated spinal or extraspinal manifestations. “”Scoliosis”" is potentially the most common manifestation associated with KFS. However, the role of congenitally fused cervical patterns along with additional potential

risk factors and their association with cervical scoliosis, and its relationship with cervical spine-related symptoms remain largely unknown.

Methods. Plain radiographs were utilized to assess the location of congenitally fused cervical segments (O-T1), degree of coronal cervical alignment, and any additional cervical and thoracic spine abnormalities. The classification scheme, as proposed by Samartzis et al of congenitally fused cervical patterns (Types I-III) in KFS patients, was utilized and additional fusion and region-specific patterns were assessed. Patients with coronal cervical alignments of 10 degrees or greater were regarded scoliotic. Patient demographics and the presence of cervical spine-related symptoms were also assessed.

Results. Thirty KFS patients were assessed (mean age, 13.5 yr). The mean coronal cervical alignment was 18.7 degrees and scoliosis was noted in 16 patients.

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