Different bacterial ginsenoside-hydrolyzing effects between human

Different bacterial ginsenoside-hydrolyzing effects between humans and experimental mice [33] and individual difference of metabolic ability to ginseng could be a reason for this result. We performed pyrosequencing for analysis of the gut microbiota of prior to and after in ginseng treated participants. Bacterial richness and diversity obtained from pyrosequencing after normalization of reads number are shown in Table 3. A total of 73,611 sequences were obtained and analyzed, and the

normalized read number of each sample for comparison of diversity indices was 2,000. Good’s coverage of samples was Talazoparib over 80%, except for the after treatment sample of Participant 5. Increased Shannon diversity indices were detected in the after treatment sample compared to the prior to treatment sample for Participants 1, 2, 5, 6, and 7, whereas deceased indices were detected for samples of Participants 4, 8, 9, and 10. Predominant phyla in average community compositions were Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, and no significant change in phylum level was observed between prior to and after. Selected genera having over 1% proportion of median value were compared. The main dominants were changed after ginseng intake; those prior to intake were genera of Blautia, Bifidobacterium, and Anaerostipes whereas those after intake were Atezolizumab datasheet Bifidobacterium,

Blautia, and Faecalibacterium, in order of abundance ( Fig. 2). Significant change was observed only in the relative abundance of Anaerostipes; prior to was 6.70 ± 3.35%, and after was 3.11 ± 3.24% Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) (data not shown).

To express the pharmacological actions of ginseng saponins, it is presumed that ginsenosides, the main constituent of ginseng, must be metabolized by human intestinal microbes after being taken orally [34]. The ginsenoside Rb1 in orally administered ginseng is metabolized to compound K by gut microbiota prior to its absorption into the blood. Beta-glucosidase, produced by intestinal microbiota, plays an important role in the pharmacological actions of ginsenoside and the components of ginseng; it is the representative ginsenoside-transforming enzyme. This enzyme activity of gut microbiota varies significantly between individuals, so that the metabolizing activities of ginsenoside Rb1inindividuals are significantly different [19]. People with different levels of ginsenoside Rb1 degradation to compound K had different gut microbiota [20]. To investigate whether the antiobesity effect of ginseng might be influenced by the composition of gut microbiota, we analyzed bacterial communities of all participants at the baseline using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). In the PCoA plot, gut microbiota of each member was clustered according to the degree of weight loss (Fig. 3). The groups were designated as: the effective weight loss group (EWG; Participants 1, 2, 5, and 6; weight change, −2.4 ± 0.

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