Improving mouth opening also favours phonation and swallowing Pe

Improving mouth opening also favours phonation and swallowing. Performing exercises half an hour before dental treatment helps improving access22. Limited mouth opening has been reported as the greatest clinical difficulty for providing dental treatment23,24 as well as complicating intubation (Image 6)25. In this context, the consulted literature provides no definitive solutions. Slight increments in the maximum oral aperture have been obtained with mechanical techniques. Four techniques have been

described. In one patient, resin plugs of progressively increasing calibre increased maximal mouth opening from 19 to 23 mm after 10 min of exercise and to 30 mm at the end of a treatment session22. Unfortunately, this parameter returned to the initial values on discontinuing mechanical therapy. Other suggestions include daily exercises with wooden spatulas26, mouth trainer, and threaded acrylic cone. When prescribing

medications check details in tablet form to patients with RDEB, it is important to consider that swallowing them could be difficult because of oesophageal stenosis or could cause oesophageal trauma. Therefore, prescriptions should be in soluble or liquid form. If sugar-free preparations are not available, parents should be advised of the sugar content and advised ideally to brush or at least rinse selleck chemicals llc the child’s teeth with water directly after administration of the medication to reduce the risk of decay. Frequency of dental review should be scheduled on an individual

basis according to the amount of plaque present and risk of caries. Every 3–6 months may be sufficient for some patients, and for others, monthly appointments may be necessary3,5,15,22,27. The review sessions should be aimed at3,7,15,19,22: (a)   Caries prevention/early diagnosis. As the predisposition to develop intraoral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC) increases with age, cancer screening must be considered a very important aspect of the review appointment in patients with RDEB from the second decade on19,28. Any unusual ulcer or white or red patches Rho should be biopsied to ensure that these do not represent pre-cancer or cancer in the mouth. Frequent recall visits have shown to be useful to maintain dental health in patients with EB6,7,15. There are examples of patients who previously had extensive carious teeth who remained caries free when attending frequent review appointments6,7. On the other hand, clinical cases have been reported showing that patients who failed to attend the review visits developed several caries within 2 years, despite a preventive programme being explained11,16. As many patients have to commute long distances, review appointments should be scheduled together with other health care appointments. A shared care approach can be considered. Even though patients with milder oral involvement do not require many treatment modifications, a careful approach benefits every patient.