He felt well and had no subjective fever. Physical examination revealed no other
petechial lesions in the conjunctivae or skin. There was no new heart murmur. Neurological screening examination was normal. No treatment was given. Occasional new splinter hemorrhages continued to appear in the ensuing 90 days. The patient was one of a group of eight adults (aged 42–81 y) who traveled together. All were in generally excellent health, and all took acetazolamide 500 mg twice daily beginning 2–3 days before arrival. For 1–2 days they toured in and around Cuzco, either walking without backpacks or taking vans. They then took a leisurely 3-hour train ride to Machu Picchu where they hiked the ruins, either with no backpack or with a light pack (weight <10 pounds). click here Examination of the other seven subjects 1–3 days after descent from altitude revealed that four had splinter hemorrhages. Thus, in total, five of eight persons who hiked ruins at Maccu Picchu had splinter hemorrhages (range 1–8 hemorrhages per hiker, median 1). Of the five who had splinter hemorrhages, three were taking 60 mg aspirin daily or three times weekly compared to one of the three who did not have hemorrhages. Only one of the subjects had symptoms
(headaches) that she attributed to altitude sickness. find protocol Rennie, a physician and mountain climber, described an association between ascent to altitude and splinter hemorrhages. While hiking in the Himalayas, he noted that hemorrhages appeared in his nail beds at 19,300 feet, after he carried a 60-pound backpack through the snow for 4 h. In his expedition, 7 of 15 fellow climbers had 1–19 subungual hemorrhages. Several of his proposed causes—trauma, extreme exertion, cold exposure, and/or impeded venous return by rucksack straps—have
been generally accepted,[4, 6, 7] but they clearly do not apply to the situation described herein. Decreased barometric pressure and hypoxemia appear to be the likely common features contributing to the appearance of these hemorrhages. Although Rennie dismissed capillary fragility as a possible explanation, Hunter et al. used petechiometry to show that capillary fragility increases in proportion to altitude. Since these investigators pheromone did not provide supplementary oxygen to any of their subjects, their method could not distinguish between low barometric pressure and low oxygen content of air. Low barometric pressure is likely, however, to be the principal cause, since the examination of hypoxemic patients in medical intensive care units does not regularly reveal splinter hemorrhages. Interestingly, retinal hemorrhages (Roth spots) have also been documented in mountain climbers at very high altitudes, supporting the hypothesized role for capillary fragility. The present report describes the appearance of splinter hemorrhages in five of eight healthy adults who spent 2–3 leisurely days touring at an altitude of 8,000–11,000 feet.