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5 All data are given as means ± standard deviation (SD) The SAS

5. All data are given as means ± standard deviation (SD). The SAS 9.1 program (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for all data processing. Demographic data and baseline characteristics were checked for normal distribution with Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Significant differences were evaluated in contingency tables using either Fisher’s exact tests or χ2-tests. Continuous variables were compared between groups using Student’s t tests or

Mann-Whitney rank sum tests. Two-sided P < 0.05 were considered significant, unless previous studies indicated that lower or higher values were to be expected; then, one-sided tests were performed. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate univariate associations between the sitosterol:lathosterol and campesterol: lathosterol PD0325901 clinical trial ratios and different ethnic groups, age, BMI and gender. Analysis of covariance was performed to obtain estimates selleck kinase inhibitor of sitosterol:lathosterol and campesterol: lathosterol ratios between ethnic groups adjusted for age,

BMI and gender. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated for each serum surrogate marker of cholesterol synthesis and absorption as well as the specified ratios; the P-values for the AUC indicate significance in comparison to 0.5. For ABCG5/8 genotypes, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was checked using exact tests ( Potential associations between gene variants

and cholelithiasis were tested in contingency tables (genotypes: Armitrage’s trend tests; alleles: χ2-tests). Table 1 presents the baseline demographic data of the study cohorts. In Germans and Chilean Hispanics, cases and matched controls are similar in age, gender, and BMI distribution. Compared with the Chilean Hispanic cohort, the German patients are older, leaner, and include more men. The small Amerindian Chilean cohort (Mapuche) was composed only of women who were relatively younger than the Hispanics and Germans. Of note, serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were Succinyl-CoA lower in Mapuches compared with Hispanics independently of gallstone status. Serum lipids are similar in cases and controls in the German cohort. In contrast, in the Chilean Hispanic cohort total and LDL cholesterol levels are significantly lower in cases compared with controls. In the Chilean Hispanic and Amerindian cohorts, fasting glucose and insulin levels were also determined, yielding comparable results between cases and controls. As shown in Table 1, the IR-HOMA indexes are high and in the range of insulin resistance for both cases and controls, but they do not differ between groups.

1B-D) Morphometric analysis of cytokeratin 19 staining of liver

1B-D). Morphometric analysis of cytokeratin 19 staining of liver sections demonstrated less, but not statistically significant (P = 0.06), bile duct proliferation in Ostα−/− BDL mice (Fig. 1E,F). Consistent with this protective effect, hepatic bile acid concentrations were significantly less in BDL Ostα−/− mice (Fig. 2A). Surprisingly, urinary bile acid concentrations were significantly increased as compared to Ostα+/+ BDL mice (Fig. 2D). The biliary and renal parenchymal bile acid levels were unchanged (Fig. 2B,E). However, bilirubin levels were increased by about five-fold in the bile and find more decreased

in the renal parenchyma when compared to Ostα+/+ mice after BDL (Fig. 2C,F). Additional bile collection studies

in untreated Ostα+/+ and Ostα−/− mice revealed that bile flow and bile acid excretion were slightly lower in the Ostα-deficient mice, but bile acid, cholesterol, and phospholipid concentrations were not significantly different over a 90-minute collection period (Supporting Fig. 2). Mass spectrometric analysis of the liver tissue revealed no difference in the bile acid composition between sham-operated Ostα+/+ and Ostα−/− mice (Fig. 3A). However, after BDL there was a 35-fold increase in tetrahydroxy bile acids in the Ostα+/+ liver tissue that was not seen in the Ostα−/− mice (Fig. 3A). Spectrometric analysis of the urine revealed significant accumulation of tetrahydroxylated bile acids (∼40%) and some pentahydroxylated bile acids (∼3.5%) and glucuronides (2.75%) in the Ostα+/+ BDL mice. In contrast, the Ostα−/− BDL mouse urine had limited tetrahydroxylated bile acids (∼10%) and no pentahydroxylated bile acids or glucuronides. Interestingly, the Ostα−/− mouse livers showed a significantly greater accumulation of bile alcohol sulfates than in the Ostα+/+ mice after BDL (Fig. 3B). Similarly, Ostα−/− BDL mice had 4.5 times more urinary excretion of sulfated bile alcohols than Ostα+/+ BDL mice (Table 1). The difference in hepatic and urine bile acid composition may be due to less bile acid accumulation in Ostα−/− mice because of the lower starting bile acid pool, as well as greater hepatic and urine bile

acid clearance. We next determined whether there was a difference in the adaptive response of genes for several nuclear receptors not and for bile acid uptake, synthesis, detoxification, and secretion. In contrast to the wild-type BDL mice, mRNA levels for the nuclear receptors Fxr and Pxr were unchanged after BDL in the Ostα−/− mice (Fig. 4A). However, Car mRNA levels, which were unchanged in the wild-type mice after BDL, were significantly higher in both the sham-operated and BDL Ostα−/− mice (Fig. 4A). In addition, the Ostα−/− BDL mice had significantly higher mRNA levels for Cyp7a1, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, sulfotransferase 2a1 (Sult2a1), and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1a1 (Ugt1a1), compared to Ostα+/+ BDL mice (Fig. 4B).

In vivo assays demonstrated that the anti-Id Abs pool not only ne

In vivo assays demonstrated that the anti-Id Abs pool not only neutralized polyclonal IgG purified from haemophilia A patient plasma but also protected the function of FVIII when injected

together with FVIII in a mouse ABT-263 solubility dmso previously reconstituted with anti-FVIII antibodies. Such results have been confirmed by evaluating the anti-FVIII Abs neutralization in the plasma of haemophilia patients [5 with auto-antibodies, 9 with allo-antibodies and 4 allo-antibodies previously but unsuccessfully treated by immune tolerance induction (ITI)] by the combination of the five anti-Ids (anti-anti-A2, -C1 and -C2). In 16 of 18 cases, the inhibiting FVIII activity from the plasma was neutralized up to 100% by the anti-Id Abs mixture and full FVIII activity was restored. Neutralization of circulating inhibitors is only one aspect of the therapeutic potential of anti-idiotypic Abs, of interest in emergency situations such as prior to surgery or to increase FVIII half-life upon infusion in haemophilia patients with

inhibitor. A second aspect is to evaluate whether anti-Id Abs carry the potential to modulate signaling of memory B cells bearing the corresponding antigen specific receptor (BCR for B-cell receptor). This modulation could lead to a significant alteration in the function of the memory B-cell pool, and thereby provide to induce long-term antigen-specific tolerance. High concentrations of FVIII can induce immune tolerance by interacting at Talazoparib price the BCR level [13]. Whether this could also be achieved by providing an anti-Id Ab as an alternative ligand remains to be seen to induce inactivation of FVIII-specific B cells. That memory B-cell compartment can be efficiently altered following the binding of anti-idiotypic Abs to the B-cell receptor (BCR) is strongly supported by our current knowledge of BCR-dependent B-cell activation and by experimental data. However, in contrast to the neutralization of circulating Abs, which has been amply demonstrated

in human diseases (e.g. the neutralization many of IgE Abs by administration of anti-IgE Abs in allergy), no direct evidence of memory B-cell specific modulation has been shown in man. It is worth noting that high doses of FVIII inhibit the restimulation of FVIII-specific memory B cells and their differentiation into Ab-secreting plasma cells, in vitro and in vivo, in a murine model of haemophilia A [13]. This indicates that anti-idiotypic Abs could potentially also modulate memory B-cell function. We have now demonstrated that anti-idiotypic Ab bind to anti-FVIII human B-cell line producing the corresponding anti-FVIII Ab. Preliminary studies on immortalized B cells demonstrated that anti-Ids Abs specifically bound to B cells producing the corresponding anti-FVIII Ab. This specific binding is followed by capping of the complexes.

We did not estimate calf:cow ratios with sample sizes <20 groups,

We did not estimate calf:cow ratios with sample sizes <20 groups, as optimization was problematic when there were few groups and observers typically classify >20 groups. Calf:cow ratios in all simulations

were estimated with function dbetabinom within package bbmle in Program R using the Nelder-Mead algorithm for optimization. Selecting an appropriate level of precision is difficult, as the desired level of precision will depend upon how the data are used. Clearly, we would like to be able to identify years in which reproduction fails and a relative precision of 20% should be sufficient to delineate years of high vs. low calf production. For example, attaining 20% relative precision for a calf:cow ratios would allow differentiation of ratios that differ by more than 1 calf per 100 cows for small ratios, such as 0.05

buy PLX3397 (i.e., 0.05 × 0.2 = 0.01), or 3 calves per 100 cows for larger BYL719 ratios, such as 0.15 (i.e., 0.15 × 0.2 = 0.03). However, if calf:cow ratios are used as measures of fecundity in population models, more precision may be necessary. We chose to present relative precisions as functions of sample size, so users can decide what sample sizes are necessary. Nine surveys classified walrus groups along the ice edge between 1982 and 1999 (Fig. 3; Table 2). Two surveys occurred in 1981 and 1982, single surveys occurred in 1983, 1984, and 1998, and two surveys occurred in 1999. Walruses would sometimes enter the water before all individuals were counted and classified to

sex and age. A total of 1,200 groups of walruses were encountered; of these, 1,107 (92%) were completely PAK5 counted and 886 were completely classified to sex and age. A total of 773 groups were completely classified and contained at least one cow. Pooling within sample years, the number of groups with cows that were classified ranged from 59 in 1983 and 1998 to 218 in 1982 (Table 2). The average size of groups with cows was 7.03 (SD = 10.35) and ranged from 5.52 (SD = 4.92) in 1982 to 9.48 (SD = 16.47) in 1981. The maximum observed sizes of groups with cows were 133 in 1981, 109 in 1982, 22 in 1983, 62 in 1984, 32 in 1998, and 30 in 1999. The entire sea ice front, from Alaska to Russia, was surveyed in 1982, 1998, and 1999 (Fig. 3). In 1981, during the Polar Star survey, time of day was not recorded for 30 cow groups (115 individual cows) and these data were not used for covariate modeling. The data were more appropriately modeled with a beta-binomial distribution (Δ AIC = 0; 2 parameters) than a zero-inflated beta-binomial distribution (Δ AIC = 2.1; 3 parameters), a zero-inflated binomial distribution (Δ AIC = 78.6; 2 parameters), or a binomial distribution (Δ AIC = 127.1; 2 parameters). Hence, a beta-binomial distribution was assumed for subsequent analyses.

Here, we report that breeding males showed increased prolactin le

Here, we report that breeding males showed increased prolactin levels when they were breeding independently of increases and decreases in day length. Also, we found a positive correlation (P = 0.05)

between the availability of food plants and prolactin levels. Changes in prolactin levels in opportunistically breeding species like the African striped mouse are not strictly regulated by photoperiod, but seem to respond to cues from food availability. ”
“Both mating system and diet are thought to drive inter-individual variation in bite force. Although previously published data suggest that bite force variation may be driven by variation in morphology (e.g. head morphology, body size, muscle size), age and physiology (e.g. fluctuating plasma testosterone Selleckchem Sunitinib levels) in some vertebrates, this remains untested in primates. Here, we explore the proximal determinants of bite force capacity in the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Our results show that in male grey mouse lemurs, bite force measurements are repeatable across a 1-month period. Yet, bite forces were independent of fluctuation plasma testosterone levels. Head dimensions and body mass

were all positively correlated with bite force. Among these, head width was the best predictor of bite force as has been observed for other vertebrates. Unexpectedly, age was highly significantly and positively correlated with bite force. Whereas older animals generally bit harder, the oldest buy ABT-263 age group (5.5 years) showed a decline in bite force capacity. These results suggest that bite force in the grey mouse lemur is mostly determined by morphology and age, yet is independent of variation OSBPL9 in testosterone. Future studies including a broader age range and animals of different sexes would be of interest to better understand the variation in bite force in this small lemur. ”
“In several animal species, discrete, heritable

phenotypic morphs occur in one sex only. This phenomenon is commonly observed in damselfly species where the coexistence of different female colour morphs is often explained in the context of sexual conflict. However, theories based on sexual conflict alone appear to be insufficient for explaining the inter-population variation in morph frequencies. A case in point is the widespread North American damselfly Nehalennia irene, in which one female morph occurs predominantly in populations in Western Canada, while another morph is more common in Eastern Canada. Given its large distribution range, historical events may be of particular relevance in explaining the observed spatial variation in morph frequencies in this species.

“Taxon-specific measurements of biomass provide reliable e

“Taxon-specific measurements of biomass provide reliable estimates of annual net primary production by entire assemblages of macroalgae in giant kelp forests off Santa Barbara, California, USA. Photo by Ron McPeak. [Vol. 49, No. Bortezomib research buy 2, pp. 248–257] ”
“Widespread bloom of the fi sh-killing raphidophyte alga Heterosigma akashiwo (dark tongue of water in foreground), observed in the central Salish Sea near Shannon Point Marine Center, Anacortes, Washington (USA) on June 28, 2006. Image credit: K. Fredrickson. [Vol. 49, No.1, pp. 20–31] ”

taxonomy is a key discipline in phycology and is critical for algal genetics, physiology, ecology, applied phycology, and particularly bioassessment. Taxonomic identification is the most common analysis and hypothesis-testing endeavor in science. Errors of identification are often related to the inherent problem of small organisms with morphologies that are difficult to distinguish without research-grade microscopes and taxonomic expertise in phycology. Proposed molecular approaches for taxonomic identification from environmental samples promise rapid, potentially inexpensive, and more thorough culture-independent identification of all algal species present in a sample of interest. Molecular

identification has been used in biodiversity and conservation, but it also has great potential for applications in bioassessment. Comparisons of morphological and molecular identification of benthic algal communities are improved Everolimus concentration by the identification of more taxa; however, automated identification technology does not allow for the simultaneous analysis of thousands

of samples. Currently, morphological identification is used to verify molecular taxonomic identities, but with the increased number of taxa verified in algal gene libraries, molecular identification will become a universal tool in biological studies. Thus, in this report, successful application of Meloxicam molecular techniques related to algal bioassessment is discussed. ”
“The publication of a mini-review by Olivier De Clerck et al. in this issue of the Journal of Phycology presented an opportunity to open a dialogue on challenges faced by contemporary algal taxonomists. The Editorial Office solicited the following two additional contributions in response to De Clerck et al.’s paper; the responses were edited solely for clarity, space and format. ”
“A 2-cell Fucus serratus embryo showing the normal first asymmetric division perpendicular to the rhizoid-thallus axis of polarity (courtesy of C. Brownlee and J.H. Bothwell). This division pattern can be disrupted by RNAi-mediated knockdown of cytoskeletal components. [Vol. 49, No. 5, pp.819–829] ”
“Impacts of climate change on algae, like within this seaweed-dominated shoreline in Brixham, UK, are compounded by direct and indirect interactions between the algae, their associated communities, and the environment.

Results: There were 34 patients with NCPF (M:F 1:18) and 30 pati

Results: There were 34 patients with NCPF (M:F 1:1.8) and 30 patients with EHPVO (M: F ratio 1.6:1). The mean age was 24.9 yrs and

41.2 yrs respectively. During follow up, 20 out of 34 and 16 out of 30 patients with NCPF and EHPVO respectively had no progression Fulvestrant clinical trial of disease. 14 patients with NCPF progressed to cirrhosis over a mean period of 5.21 years. Eight patients developed ascites and required diuretics. 14 patients with EHPVO progressed to NCPF over the mean period of 8.6 years, 12 patients further progressed to cirrhosis over a mean period of 5.1 years. Overall 40% of patients with EHPVO progressed to cirrhosis over a mean period of 13.7 years. Conclusion: INCPH is a spectrum wherein EHPVO progresses to NCPF and further to cirrhosis over a period of 13.7 years at least in a proportion of patients. Conversely, identifying these changes may suggest to the clinicians the need to work-up a patient for portal hypertension. Key Word(s): 1. INCPH; 2. NCPF; 3. EHPVO; 4. Cirrhosis; Presenting Author: WEI HOU Additional Authors: CHENYANG DAI, HANGYU PEI, SRT1720 chemical structure WUKUI CAO, YUQIANG MI, JIMING YANG, WEI LU

Corresponding Author: WEI HOU Affiliations: Tianjin Second People’s Hospital and Tianjin Institute of Hepatology Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) mutation and analyze the codon usage pattern of YMDD variants in patients with lamivudine (LAM)-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: 514 CHB inpatients and outpatients from our hospital with confirmed genotypic resistance to LAM were enrolled in this study between Jan 2008 and Oct 2012. The YMDD motif of these HBV isolates were analyzed Amobarbital using a pyrosequencing method. Results: The baseline YMDD mutation patterns were as follows: rtM204I (298, 57.98%), rtM204V (168, 32.68%), and rtM204I+ rtM204V (48, 9.34%). For rtM204I mutation (I = AAT, ATC or ATA), I/ATT (84.78%) >I/ATC (8.97%) >I/ATA (6.25%). Most of the I/ATC (90.91%), I/ATT (70.34%) and I/ATA (65.21%) variants were completely mutated. For rtM204V mutation (V = GTG, GTT, GTA or GTC), V/GTG

(80.54%) >V/GTT (16.79%) >V/GTA (1.53%) >V/GTC (1.14%). More than half of V/GTG (53.55%) variants were completely mutated. However, V/GTA (100%), V/GTT (90.91%) and V/GTC (66.67%) variants were always mixed with M/ATG wide-type isolates. Conclusion: We firstly show the synonymous codon usage pattern of YMDD variants in HBV isolates. The synonymous codons of YMDD variants are not chosen equally and randomly. I/ATT and V/GTG are predominant for rtM204I and rtM204V mutation, respectively. A further investigation of the mutation pressure with translation selection on codon usage might shed a new light on understanding the evolutionary trends of HBV and host adaptive response, which might assist control this disease. Key Word(s): 1. chronic hepatitis B; 2. lamivudine; 3. YMDD; 4.

Inside the fibrous septum was an apparent aggregation of enlarged

Inside the fibrous septum was an apparent aggregation of enlarged macrophages that phagocytosed lipid components, as well as enlarged Kupffer cells that phagocytosed lipid droplets. Electron microscopy showed the lipid droplets to have a moth-eaten appearance. Using monocytes extracted from the peripheral blood, acid lipase activity was measured by fluorescence spectrometry using 4-methylumbelliferone palmitate as a substrate. This patient’s human lysosomal acid lipase activity was 0.020 nM/min per 106 cells, corresponding to 5.9% of that

DNA Damage inhibitor in healthy subjects (0.332 ± 0.066 nM/min per 106 cells). Cholesterol ester storage disease was therefore diagnosed. The acid lipase A base sequence obtained from leukocytes by direct sequencing was compared with a library. This patient had a point mutation of N250H/N250H in exon 7, a novel gene abnormality that has not previously been reported. ”
“Bile acid synthesis not only produces physiological detergents required for intestinal nutrient absorption, but also plays a critical role in regulating hepatic and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. We recently reported that overexpression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) Rucaparib clinical trial in the liver resulted in improved metabolic homeostasis in Cyp7a1 transgenic (Cyp7a1-tg) mice. This study further investigated the molecular links between bile acid metabolism and lipid homeostasis. Microarray gene profiling revealed that CYP7A1 overexpression

led to marked activation of the steroid response element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2)-regulated cholesterol metabolic network and absence of bile acid repression of lipogenic gene expression in livers of Cyp7a1-tg mice. Interestingly, Cyp7a1-tg mice showed significantly elevated

hepatic cholesterol synthesis rates, but reduced hepatic fatty acid synthesis rates, which was accompanied by increased 14C-glucose-derived acetyl-coenzyme A incorporation into sterols for fecal excretion. Induction of SREBP2 also coinduces intronic microRNA-33a (miR-33a) in the SREBP2 gene in Cyp7a1-tg mice. Overexpression of miR-33a in the liver resulted in decreased bile acid pool, increased hepatic cholesterol content, and lowered serum cholesterol in mice. Conclusion: This study suggests that a CYP7A1/SREBP2/miR-33a axis plays a critical role in regulation of hepatic cholesterol, oxyclozanide bile acid, and fatty acid synthesis. Antagonism of miR-33a may be a potential strategy to increase bile acid synthesis to maintain lipid homeostasis and prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and obesity. (Hepatology 2013;53:1111–1121) Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol exclusively in the liver.[1] The rate of bile acid synthesis is mainly controlled by transcriptional regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1),[1] which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic bile acid synthesis pathway. When bile acid levels increase, bile acids repress their own synthesis and stimulate biliary lipid secretion.

Patients with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding not confirmed by dia

Patients with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding not confirmed by diagnostic upper GI (UGI) endoscopy were not included. For every patient with EVB and HCC, a patient with EVB without HCC was included. Patients were paired according to age (±5 years) and Child-Pugh class (A/B/C). Follow-up of all patients was prolonged until June 2011. Patients who received liver transplantation

(LT) during the follow-up were censored at this time point. Data regarding demographics, liver disease, bleeding episode, and follow-up were registered. In patients with HCC, information regarding tumoral disease was collected. Bleeding was considered from esophageal variceal origin C59 wnt molecular weight when the emergency endoscopy,

performed within 12 hours after admission, showed any of the accepted criteria defining VB.[31] Baveno V definition of events associated with the bleeding episode was used: failure to control bleeding; 6-week rebleeding; 6-week death and failure of secondary prophylaxis, Fulvestrant chemical structure which includes any significant bleeding resulting from portal hypertension after day 5 during the complete follow-up, that leads to hospitalization; and drop in 3 g of hemoglobin, blood transfusion, or death within 6 weeks of the rebleeding episode.[32] Previous decompensation was defined by the presence of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), or VB. Parametric and nonparametric variables are described with means (standard deviation) and medians (interquartile range; IQR), respectively. Categorical variables are described with proportions. Chi-square, Student t, and Mann-Whitney’s tests were used according to variable characteristics. Patients who received LT were censored at the

time of transplant. Kaplan-Meier’s Anidulafungin (LY303366) curves were constructed and compared with the log-rank test or Breslow’s test, as appropriate. Cox’s multivariate stepwise regression analysis was performed to analyze the independent effect of each variable on survival. The presence of statistical and biological interaction and confusion were analyzed by stratified analysis and inclusion of the product term of the interaction. The study protocol conformed to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki. Ethics committee approval was obtained. During the study period, a total of 146 patients were admitted because of EVB and HCC in the 10 centers (see Appendix 1). Patients had a median age of 68 years (IQR, 59-74) and were predominantly Child-Pugh class B (A in 30, B in 76, and C in 40) with a median Model for End-Stage Live Disease (MELD) score of 14 (range, 11-17; Table 1). HCC was diagnosed a median of 4 (range, 0-18) months before the VB episode. Thirty-seven (25%) patients were diagnosed at the time of the bleeding episode, whereas 109 (75%) were diagnosed previously.

2% versus 485% in those randomized to 48 weeks) Thus, if an ext

2% versus 48.5% in those randomized to 48 weeks). Thus, if an extended 72-week regimen is being contemplated for an individual patient, the decision should be informed by rs12979860 genotype status and should only be generally considered for slow responders who carry a T allele. Erlotinib research buy Interest in extended-duration therapy

is waning with the approval of the first direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, because slow virologic responders have suboptimal response rates to peginterferon/ribavirin/DAA triple therapy,28-31 response-guided therapy remains an important treatment strategy. A response-guided approach was used in the phase 3 studies of protease inhibitors by extending treatment to 48 weeks in patients with detectable HCV RNA at week 4 (telaprevir) or 8 (boceprevir).27,

28 These trials confirmed the potential for these agents to increase overall SVR rates and decrease treatment duration for many genotype 1 patients. A treatment extension beyond week 48 was not investigated so far. It is not clear, however, whether all patients will require a DAA to optimize treatment outcomes. For example, the addition of boceprevir after 4 weeks PARP inhibitor of treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin improved SVR rates only in individuals with a <2-log10 drop in HCV RNA after the 4-week run-in period in a phase 2 study in treatment-naive genotype 1 patients.29 Furthermore, as shown in the present study, regardless of the IL28B genotype more than 80% of patients with an RVR on peginterferon/ribavirin achieve an SVR after just 24 weeks of treatment. Thus, the benefit of adding a DAA to standard peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy in these patients requires further evaluation. Like all published studies on the role of IL28B polymorphism, this analysis was carried out Ceramide glucosyltransferase retrospectively. Patients were

recruited for the parent trial between 2003 and 2008, long before the importance of the IL28B genotype in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C was established. Therefore, not all patients who were enrolled in the study were represented in the genotype analysis; thus, the results must be regarded with caution. Patients were recalled and asked to participate in this analysis; thereby only 62.3% of the study participants could be tested. This compares well with other retrospective trials (i.e., 65% in the study by Mangia et al.32 and 52.2% in the study by Thompson et al.17). The overall results of the parent study were not different from this subanalysis. Furthermore, patients were not stratified by rs12979860 genotype. It is reassuring that a similar proportion (≈60% to 67%) of patients were genotyped in each group, and that the relapse rates reported in groups A and B in the original study (33% and 17%, respectively) are generally similar to those reported in this analysis (38% and 19%, respectively).