, 2008; Briones & Woods, 2011; Christie et al., 2012). It is also possible that cancer treatment might affect the differentiation or migration of immature cells that are present at the time of treatment. It is known that the majority of cells labeled with BrdU in the granule cell layer differentiate into neurons (Leuner et al., 2007), whereas proportionately more
of those in the hilus differentiate into glia (Scharfman et al., 2007). Thus, it seems that TMZ preferentially affected neurogenesis, and not the generation of glia. In fact, systemically administered chemotherapeutic drugs that do not PD0325901 datasheet cross the blood–brain barrier as readily as TMZ lead to fewer new hippocampal cells maturing into neurons and to abnormal dendritic morphology in those that do (Christie et al., 2012). Also, cells surviving radiation therapy preferentially differentiate into glial cells instead of neurons (Monje et al., 2002). It could also be that cells that become neurons (in the granule cell layer) instead of becoming glia (in the hilus) are more sensitive to cancer therapy, because of possible differences in DNA repair mechanisms between immature neurons and glia (Bauer et al., 2012). Although it is targeted to affect proliferating cells, TMZ might also have (indirect) adverse effects on mature, older neurons and/or glia,
thus further affecting the integrity of the hippocampal network. Consistent with this, white and gray matter loss have been reported in humans years after termination of chemotherapy (Dietrich et al., 2008). However, according Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) to our current results, Dasatinib nmr chemotherapy disrupts learning in a very selective manner, sparing learning that relies solely on mature neurons in the cerebellum (Shors et al., 2001; Thompson & Steinmetz, 2009) and sparing memories stored by mature neurons in the neocortex (Takehara et al., 2003). In addition, the adverse effects of cancer treatment on cognition are ameliorated by factors promoting neurogenesis in animal models (El Beltagy et al., 2010; Lyons et al., 2011; Winocur et al.,
2011; Fardell et al., 2012). Thus, it seems plausible that disruptions in hippocampal neurogenesis contribute to the deficits in learning and working memory processes that are reported by humans treated systemically for cancer. Chemotherapy affects various learning tasks in a selective manner, impairing performance on some tasks while sparing performance on other tasks (Shors et al., 2001; Mustafa et al., 2008; Briones & Woods, 2011; Christie et al., 2012). Consistent with these observations, TMZ affected some but not all forms of classical eyeblink conditioning. Specifically, TMZ severely impaired hippocampus-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning. More interestingly, TMZ did not alter learning of another hippocampus-dependent task, VLD conditioning.