For the analysis of total amount of biofilm formation (topography

For the analysis of total amount of biofilm formation (topography analysis), material groups (MPT, CPT and Zc) and regions (anterior and posterior) were used as categorical variables. When the total area of formed biofilm was evaluated between groups considering or not different regions, samples were assumed to be dependents and the Friedman test with post hoc Dunn test was applied. When the total area was evaluated between regions not considering different materials, Wilcoxon Selleck GSK1120212 matched-pair signed-rank test was carried out. By comparing the chemiluminescent intensity signals found in biofilm

samples and control lanes provided by the DNA checkerboard analysis, the number of micro-organisms colonising each substrate surface could be expressed in terms of counts. Percentages of colonised specimens

(incidence) for each target species were also provided. In order to compare the counts and the incidence of each microbial species at each material, the data were averaged within material groups and then averaged across different experimental regions (anterior and posterior). Significance of differences between groups Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor for each species and total microbial count was sought using the Friedman test with post hoc Dunn test or Wilcoxon matched-pair test. Differences were considered significant when p < 0.05. All the statistical analyses were conducted using GraphPad InStat statistical software (GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The mean roughness surface (Ra, ±SD, ±standard error selleck chemicals llc of mean (SEM)) of the different tested substrates are summarised in Table

1. The Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance showed extremely significant differences between tested materials (p < 0.0001). Dunn’s multiple comparison test showed higher mean roughness values for Zc when compared with titanium specimens (MPT and CPT; p < 0.001). MPT and CPT presented no differences between them (p > 0.05). Roughness values for titanium specimens ranged from 0.2 (minimum) to 0.46 μm (maximum), indicating a similar smooth structure of substrates. By contrast, the range for Zc specimens was 0.35–0.85 μm. The mean values of the total area (mm2) of formed biofilm for each material substrate are displayed in Fig. 1. Friedman test showed no significant differences in the total area of biofilm formation between evaluated substrates (p = 0.0724), neither after interaction with anterior or posterior region of disc placement (p = 0.2971). No significant differences were also observed when the biofilm area was compared only among regions (anterior and posterior) without interaction with material substrates (Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test; p = 0.4546). The minimum value of the biofilm total area was recorded for an anterior Zc specimen (38.9 mm2), while the maximum values was recorded for anterior/posterior Zc and anterior MPT specimens (111.75 mm2, 111.64 mm2 and 111.