In addition, an analysis of data on over 10 000 women reported to

In addition, an analysis of data on over 10 000 women reported to the APR from 1989 to 2010 did not find a significant increase in PTD in women with PI exposure with lower pre-existing risk [50]. Over 85% of these reports to the APR came from the USA. Most studies that have looked at the relationship between the timing of HAART initiation and PTD have found that the

risk was increased in those either conceiving on HAART or taking it early in pregnancy (in the first trimester) [[41],[43],[49],[51]]. BMS354825 However, the NSHPC UK and Ireland study did not find an association between timing of HAART initiation and PTD [44]. One single-centre UK study found the risk to be increased in those initiating HAART in pregnancy compared with those conceiving on treatment [52]. A 2010 USA study attempted to overcome the potential confounding factors associated with timing of HAART initiation by looking only at women starting Sirolimus nmr HAART in pregnancy and comparing PI-containing with non-PI-containing regimens and did not find an association between PI-containing regimens and PTD [53].

In this study, 72% of the 777 women received a PI-based regimen, and in 47% of those, the PI was nelfinavir, with 22% on lopinavir/ritonavir. Further comparison between nelfinavir and the ritonavir-boosted lopinavir was unfortunately not possible. A 2011 study from the ANRS reported an association between HAART and PTD and in the 1253 patients initiating a PI-based regimen, those on ritonavir-based PI regimens were significantly more likely to deliver prematurely when compared with those on a non-boosted PI regimen (HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.06–3.89) [54]. The conflicting findings of these largely observational studies make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. Importantly, a history of previous PTD, one of the most significant risk factors for subsequent PTD, is rarely, if ever collected. Additionally, selleck inhibitor there may be fundamental differences between cohorts precluding reliable comparison. For example, the USA has the highest background

PTD rate of any industrialized country, peaking at 12.8% in 2006 [55]. Two randomized studies have now been published, both looking at the use of different ARV regimens in breastfeeding populations, primarily in relation to HIV MTCT. The Mma Bana study from Botswana randomly allocated 560 women at 26–34 weeks’ gestation, with CD4 cell counts >200 cells/μL to receive either lopinavir/ritonavir plus zidovudine/lamivudine (PI group) or abacavir/zidovudine/lamivudine (NRTI group). The PTD rates were significantly higher in the PI group (21.4% vs. 11.8%; P = 0.003) [56]. A second study, the Kesho Bora Study randomly allocated 824 women at 28–36 weeks’ gestation, again with CD4 cell counts >200 cells/μL to receive lopinavir/ritonavir and zidovudine/lamivudine or zidovudine monotherapy twice daily plus a single dose of nevirapine at the onset of labour.