NNLS software was used for sample analysis. The zeta potential was measured by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) coupled with Photon Correlation Spectroscopy using a Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern Instruments, Malvern). The experiments were conducted at 25 °C and a scattering angle of 17°. The Zetapotential was calculated out of the electrophoretic mobility by applying the Henry equation. Although Photon Correlation Spectroscopy has its limitations for the assessment of fibrous particles it is an accepted technique to describe physicochemical parameters of CNTs in solvents (Ito et al., 2004 and Lee et al., 2005). Hence, this
method has also been used by several other groups for the characterization of CNTs for biological experiments (e.g., (Bhirde et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2011 and Yang et al., 2012)). To verify this data by another independent method, CNTs were also characterized Ivacaftor ic50 by transmission electron microscopy. The DAPT chemical structure CNTs were dispersed in DMEM + 10% FBS at 1 mg/ml and treated with ultrasound for 20 min. Five Microlitre of this solution were placed on a carbon coated copper grid that had previously been treated with a Pelco EasyGlow glow discharge device (Ted Pella, Inc., Redding, CA). After 1 min incubation, the solution was withdrawn using non hardened microscopic filter paper (Whatman, VWR International). Images were taken using a FEI Tecnai G2 20 transmission electron microscope (FEI Eindhoven)
with a Gatan ultrascan 1000 ccd camera. Acceleration voltage was 80 kV. Sizes of CNTs were measured from the TEM images. A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ATCC) were cultured in DMEM + 10% fetal bovine serum in 6-well multiwell plates with polycarbonate membrane transwells (ThinCerts, Greiner bio-one, Frickenhausen). Cells were seeded with 500,000 cells/well. Cells in transwells were cultured in both liquid, submersed culture (LCC, cell culture medium in apical and basal compartment) and air–liquid interface (ALI) (apical compartment
air and basal compartment cell culture medium) at 37° C in a 95% air/5% CO2 atmosphere. For the exposures in the VITROCELL/PARI BOY and in the MicroSprayer, cells were seeded, medium was removed after 24 h and cells were cultured for an additional 7–8 days prior to the exposures. The expression of tight junction proteins in cells was studied Chlormezanone by the immunocytochemical localization of zona occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1. E-cadherin was chosen as a representative protein that is present in adherent junctions. Cells were fixed by incubation in 100% ethanol for 20 min, in 100% methanol for 2.5 min and in 1:1 ethanol/acetone 10 min at −20 °C. Thereafter, first antibodies and negative controls were added for 30 min at RT, followed by incubation with the secondary antibodies for 30 min at RT and counterstained with Hoechst 33342 for 15 min. Between all incubations, cells were rinsed three times for 5 min in PBS.