2b) The area of muscle fibers in the P8 + N group was

2b). The area of muscle fibers in the P8 + N group was Osimertinib price significantly less than that in the other groups; however, the area of muscle fibers in P8 + GJG was almost the same as that of the SAMR1 mice fed normal chow (R + N) and SAMR1 mice fed GJG (R + GJG) (p < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA) (Fig. 2c). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the level of SERCA1 (fast skeletal muscle) was lower in the P8 + N group than in the other groups. However, the P8 + GJG group ameliorated the increase in slow skeletal muscle fibers (Fig. 3a and B). Western blotting analysis revealed that the expression of troponin I (slow skeletal muscle) increased in the P8 + N group, whereas

it was suppressed in the P8 + GJG group.

As compared with mice of the P8 + N group, mice of the P8 + GJG group demonstrated increased expression of troponin T (fast skeletal muscle; Fig. 3c). Muscle fiber type determination is regulated by PGC-1α (Lin et al. 2002) which is phosphorylated by AMPK (Jager et al. 2007). Fig. 3c also shows that the expression of them in the P8 + N group was lower than in the control groups (R + N, R + GJG). However, in the P8 + GJG group, the expression of p-AMPK and PGC-1α was normal. Fig. 4a shows that the administration of GJG elevated the levels of serum IGF-1 in SAMP8 mice. Next, we examined Thiazovivin manufacturer signaling in skeletal muscles via western blotting. Akt is activated by phosphorylation of threonine 308 (Thr308) and of serine 473 (Ser473) (Sarbassov et al. 2005). Fig. 4b shows that phosphorylation of Akt, especially at Thr308, was significantly decreased in the muscles of P8 + N mice. This

trend was corrected by the administration of GJG. Fig. 4c shows the phosphorylation levels of GSK-3β in the skeletal muscles of mice. The levels of p-GSK-3β were lower in P8 + N than in the other groups, whereas treatment with GJG improved the levels 6-phosphogluconolactonase of p-GSK-3β (Fig. 4c). Next, we evaluated the glycogen content in skeletal muscle by using PAS staining. Fig. 4d shows that the deep red regions (indicating a high glycogen content) of the soleus in the P8 + N group were much smaller than those of the other groups; however, the deep red regions of the soleus in the P8 + GJG group were markedly larger. The Akt-axis stimulates phosphorylation of the FoxO family, which regulates the expression levels of atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1, thereby suppressing the degradation of protein in skeletal muscle (Brunet et al., 1999 and Franke, Kaplan and Cantley, 1997). In our study, phosphorylation of FoxO4 markedly decreased in the P8 + N group, and administration of GJG to mice did not reduce these phosphorylation levels (Fig. 5a). We evaluated the expression of phosphorylation of FoxO1 and FoxO3, and they were slightly suppressed in SAMP8 mice (data not shown). Fig.