1B) However, all treatments increased serum alkaline phosphatase

1B). However, all treatments increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels (Fig. 1B) (modest increase by INT-767) and liver weight/body weight (LW/BW) ratio (Supporting Fig. 1A). http://www.selleckchem.com/products/atezolizumab.html Histological examination (i.e., hematoxylin and eosin [H&E] staining) of INT-767-treated Mdr2−/− mouse livers showed less portal inflammation and bile duct proliferation (Fig. 1C), compared with untreated mice. In contrast, INT-747 aggravated liver damage in Mdr2−/− mice, as reflected

by increased bile duct proliferation, portal tract expansion (Fig. 1C), and single-cell necrosis with lobular inflammation (Supporting Fig. 1B), whereas no significant changes were detected after treatment with INT-777. INT-767 treatment reduced F4/80, tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf-α), and interleukin BVD-523 order (Il)-1β messenger RNA (mRNA) levels (Fig. 2A-C) as well as the number of cluster of differentiation (CD)-11b- and F4/80-positive cells (Supporting Fig. 2A,B). In contrast, INT-747 increased Il-1β mRNA levels (Fig. 2C) and portal CD-11b-positive cell accumulation in Mdr2−/− mice (Supporting Fig. 2A). The reactive cholangiocyte

phenotype was also reduced by INT-767, as reflected by significantly lowered K19 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (Vcam-1) mRNA levels and by immunohistochemical staining (Supporting Fig. 3). INT-747 increased Vcam-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (Mcp-1) mRNA levels and induced Vcam-1 staining in cholangiocytes, MCE inflammatory cell infiltrates, and periportal

hepatocytes, whereas INT-777 increased only Mcp-1 mRNA levels (Supporting Fig. 3). Liver fibrosis was reduced in INT-767-treated Mdr2−/− mice, as reflected by hepatic hydroxyproline (HP) content, inhibition of collagen type 1 alpha 1 (Col1a1) gene expression, and reduced spleen weight (SW)/BW ratio (Fig. 2D-F). In contrast, HP, Col1a1 mRNA, as well as SW/BW ratio increased in INT-747-fed mice, but remained unchanged in INT-777-fed mice. These findings were also confirmed by Sirius red staining (Supporting Fig. 4). Ki-67 staining revealed increased hepatocyte proliferation by INT-767 and INT-747 in Mdr2−/− (data not shown) and Fxr+/+ mice, but not in Fxr−/− mice (Supporting Fig. 5). Potential direct anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of INT-767 were addressed in macrophage, cholangiocyte, and hepatocyte cell lines and isolated primary myofibroblasts (MFBs). Notably, despite the potent in vivo effects, INT-767 had only a modest or not statistically significant effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced Il-6 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages, Tnf-α-induced Vcam-1 gene expression in biliary epithelial cells (BEC), and TNF-α−induced TNF-α gene expression in HepG2 cells, despite pronounced inhibition of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) as a positive control (Supporting Fig. 6).